A Counselor Who Takes The Humanistic Perspective Would Focus Most On _____

AP Psychology Test 1

In an experimental study, men with erectile dysfunction received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak dose) was theindependent variable
Experimenter bias refers to _____.tendency to influence the experiment to get different results
The concept of control is important in psychological research becauseexperimental control allows researchers to study the influence of one or two independent variables on a dependent variable while holding other potential influences constant.
Unlike correlational studies, experiments involvemanipulating the factors of interest.
An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustratesan operational definition.
To assess the influence of self-esteem on interpersonal attraction, researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance just before they went on a blind date. In this research, the dependent variable wasinterpersonal attraction.
Any factor such as infant nutrition which can vary in its quality or quantity is called avariable
If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new “memory” drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the _____ would be the independent variable (IV), and the _____ would be the dependent variable (DV).exposure to the drug; quiz scores
While conducting research, you unintentionally provide subtle cues to the study’s participants about the purpose of the research, which influences your results in the direction you expected) This is a demonstration of _____.experimenter bias
In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.dependent
In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ________ variable.independent
_____ are manipulated; _____ are measured.IVs; DVs
(PsychSim: Descriptive Statistics) Imagine that you have entered the following distribution of scores into the program: 7, 9, 6, 3, 7, 8, 4, 10, 7, 9. The mean of this distribution of scores would be changed the most if a score of ________ was removed from the data set.3
(PsychSim: Descriptive Statistics) The median of a skewed distribution is likely to be ________ the mean.less than or greater than
(PsychSim: Descriptive Statistics) The standard deviation is the average distance of each score in a distribution from themean
(PsychSim: Descriptive Statistics) If a distribution is badly skewed, researchers are more likely than usual to prefer the ________ as a measure of central tendency.median
(PsychSim: Descriptive Statistics) When most scores in a data set are toward one end of the range of scores, the distribution is said to beskewed
Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assignedto that group my chance
To learn about the TV-viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)population
To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were told to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.control
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?The experimental treatment is absent
In a study on student conformity, researchers selected a group of college students who appeared to represent the characteristics of students from the entire college campus. The selected group served as the _____ of the college _____.sample; population
Participants in an experiment are said to be blind if they are uninformed aboutwhich experimental treatment, if any, they are receiving.
A sample is BEST defined as _____.a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger population
Research participants are randomly assigned to different groups in an experiment in order toreduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between groups of participants.
Sample bias occurs when _____.the sample of participants in a research study are not representative of the larger population
An example of a(n) ___________ research study would be where an experiment was conducted on caffeine-induced stress in which neither the class researchers nor the participants in the experiment knew who did and did not receive caffeine until after the study was completed.double-blind study
One way to ensure less sample bias is to select a(n) _____ sample.representative/random
To assess the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researchers plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are more intelligent than those in the other group, the researchers should make use ofrandom assignment
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure thatthe participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.
In an experiment studying whether eating sugar influences children’s ability to focus their attention on a problem-solving task, the group of children given sugar is referred to as the______________.experimental group
The group exposed to a newly created drug that is being tested in an experiment is called the ________ group.experimental
Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?random sampling
_____ are factors that are not being directly manipulated or measured, which could affect research results if they are not held constant.Extraneous variables
Random assignment minimizes ________ between experimental and control groups. Random sampling minimizes ________ between a sample and a population.differences; differences
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?experimentation
Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from _____ studies.experimental
In a case study, a researcher is most likely to _____.conduct an in-depth study of a single research participant
_____ research observes and records behaviors without manipulating variables or producing causal explanations.descriptive
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables?vary together
What is an advantage of survey research?Surveys can be used on larger samples than other research methods
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish betweencause and effects
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of:research
If you wanted to study someone with a rare disorder such as photophobia (the fear of light), your BEST research option would be a/an _____.case study
To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. Which research method did this illustrate?naturalistic observation
Why can experiments determine causal relationships when no other research method can?Experiments isolate the effects of independent variables on dependent variable
Which scientific method of research would be used if a college student running for student body president was trying to determine whether to emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services in their campaign?survey
In a naturalistic observation, a researcher would be most likely to do which of the following?observe and systematically record behavior in a participant’s natural state or habitat
To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use?correlational measures
Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?the experiment
In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?the survey
The main advantage of naturalistic observation is that it _____.allows researchers to obtain data about natural behavior
Which research method would most likely be used to test the following hypothesis? People who conserve energy by buying hybrid cars are more likely to spend more money on organic foods.correlation
Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged innaturalistic observation
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that itmay be unrepresentative of what is generally true.
The behavior genetics perspective would be most directly concerned with assessing the relative influences of?nature and nurture
Professor Brody attempts to measure the relative contributions of inborn traits and social influences on homosexual behavior. Her research efforts best illustrate the interests of the ________ perspective.Behavioral Genetics
The high school counselor has suggested that Skylar’s romantic feelings for her physics teacher reflect her unconscious longings for attention from her own father. The counselor’s assessment most clearly reflects a(n) ________ perspective.psychodynamic
Which of the following is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables?Correlation coefficient
If height and body weight are positively correlated, which of the following is true?Knowing a person’s height, one can predict his or her weight.
Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?Cognitive
During a dinner conversation, a friend says that the cognitive and behavioral perspectives are quite similar. You disagree and point out that the cognitive perspective emphasizes ________, whereas the behavioral perspective emphasizes ________.conscious processes; observable responses
According to the humanistic perspective, human behavior is determined by ________ causes.voluntary
The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how:people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?Behavioral
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?neuroscience
Dr. Matias has concluded that very few people in a small African country suffer from alcohol dependence because of the strong influence of their religion. This belief best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.social-cultural
A negative correlation between people’s work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate thathigher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.
The psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s that stressed free will and self-actualization was the __________ perspectivehumanistic
Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences individual attitudes and behaviors?social-cultural
A researcher was interested in determining whether her students’ test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students’ scores on a math test with their seating position. This study is an example ofcorrelational research
The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized byhumanistic psychology
ofessor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression?neuroscience
Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?evolutionary
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded thatcorrelation does not prove causation
A correlation of +0.70 between children’s physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates thathigher levels of popularity among your peers is associated with greater physical height in children
Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors’ genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.evolutionary