A Triglyceride + Globulin Complex Is Termed A(N) __________.

A&P2 Ch 19. Blood

Formed ElementsRed blood cells (RBC)
White blood cells (WBC)
Platelets
Blood composition of formed elements37-54%
VenipunctureCommon sampling technique because:
-Superficial veins are easy to locate
-Walls of veins are thinner than those of comparable arteries
-Blood pressure in venous system is low
Blood temperatureis about 100.4°F
Blood is slightly _______, with a pH between _______.alkaline; 7.35 – 7.45
Plasma accounts for ______ of blood volume50-60%
Plasma has a Higher concentration of ______ and ________ than interstitial fluid.dissolved oxygen and dissolved proteins
Bind and transport molecules such as:
-Fatty acids
-Thyroid hormones
-Steroid hormones
Albumins
Responsible for viscosity and osmotic pressure of bloodAlbumins
Include antibodies and transport globulinsGlobulins
Also called immunoglobins; Attack foreign proteins and pathogensAntibodies
Bind ions, hormones and other compoundsTransport globulins
Provide hormone reserves in the blood streamHormone-binding proteins
Transport metal ions
Transferrin is an example (Carries Fe2+)
Metalloproteins
Carry lipids
When bound to lipids becomes a lipoprotein
Apolipoproteins
Transport steroid hormones in the blood
An example is testosterone-binding globulin
Steroid-binding proteins
Converted to fibrin during clottingFibrinogen
Other Plasma Proteins include:Insulin
FSH
TSH
LH
Temporarily increase the blood volume: dextran and Ringer’s solutionPlasma Expanders
Isotonic saline containing lactate ions
– Effects fade as liver and muscles absorb and metabolize lactate
Ringer’s solution
measures the percentage of whole blood occupied by formed elements (Commonly referred to as the volume of packed red cells)Hematocrit
After erythropoietin (EPO) stimulationHematocrit increases
Biconcave disc, allows stacking, bending and flexing, lack organelles

Typically degenerate in about 120 days

They are either phagocytized or lysed

Structure of RBCs
______ is a globular protein, formed from two pairs of polypeptide subunits.

Each subunit contains a molecule of heme which reversibly binds an oxygen molecule

Hemoglobin
Molecules of hemoglobin account for 95% of the _____ in RBCsproteins
Accounts for RBCs ability to bind and transport:
– Oxygen
– Carbon dioxide
Hemoglobin
Heme stripped of iron and converted to biliverdin, then bilirubin > Iron is recycled by being stored in phagocytes, or transported throughout the blood stream bound to transferrin.RBC Recycling
the formation of bloodHemopoiesis or Hematopoeisis
the formation of new red blood cellsErythropoeisis
Process of new red blood cell formationspeeds up with in the presence of ________.EPO (AKA: Erythropoeisis stimulating hormone)
Vertebrae, Sternum, Ribs, Skull, Scapula, Pelvis, and Proximal limb bonesmyeloid tissues
Deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobinAnemia
Oxygen deficiency as a result of anemiahypoxia
Deficiency of RBCs due to Vitamin B12 deficiencyPernicious anemia
Autoimmune disorderHemolytic anemia
Abundance of over-sized erythrocytes due to impaired erythropoiesis (Often the result of Vitamin B12 deficiency)Macrocytic anemia
Abnormally small erythrocytes
– Found in iron-deficient anemia
Microcytic anemia
– Over abundance of RBCs
– Similar effects to blood-doping
– Due to excessive or prolonged secretion of EPO
– Affects blood viscosity
Polycythemia
Increase in the number of reticulocytes in circulating bloodReticulocytosis
Non-specific immunity, such as phagocytosis, is a function of which blood cells?neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes
The combination of plasma and formed elements is calledwhole blood
Each hemoglobin molecule containsfour iron atoms
The enzyme that can digest fibrin and dissolve a clot isplasmin
Plasma proteins essential in body defense are theimmunoglobulins
White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury arebasophils
A substance that activates plasminogen might be useful tocause clot dissolution to proceed faster
The clumping of red blood cells, when the specific antibody against the antigen on the cells is added, is calledagglutination
More than 95 percent of the protein in a red blood cell ishemoglobin
If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.purified platelets
involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrincoagulation
Granulocytes form inred bone marrow
The function of platelets is to assist in theprocess of hemostasis
The process of fibrinolysisdissolves clots.
The common pathway of coagulation begins with theactivation of Factor X, production of prothrombin activator.
What would you expect to see in increased numbers in a peripheral blood sample after donating a unit of blood?reticulocytes
People with type O blood are considered “universal donors” for transfusions because __________.their red blood cells lack A and B surface antigens
Thyroid-binding globulin is an example of which kind of plasma protein?hormone-binding
The plasma protein involved in blood clotting isfibrinogen
The process of lymphopoiesis occurs mainly in thered bone marrow
– granules contain heparin
– constitute about 1 percent of WBCs
– attract other defense cells
– granules contain histamine
basophils
The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by therelease of tissue factor (Factor III) by damaged endothelium.
true of eosinophils?They have bilobed nucleus.
Allergic patients have many.
They constitute about 2 to 4 percent of WBCs.
Granules stain with eosin dyes.
The enzyme that dissolves fibrin is named __________.plasmin
________ are large phagocytic white cells that spend most of their time outside the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells.Monocytes
A typical adult hematocrit is45%
A bruise appears as a greenish spot in the skin becausethe heme group in the hemoglobin has broken down into biliverdin.
Which of the following vitamins is needed for the formation of clotting factors?Vitamin K
The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
develop into plasma cellsB lymphocytes
The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are theneutrophils
Anti-D antibodies are present in the blood ofRh negative individuals who have been exposed to the D surface antigen.
A triglyceride + globulin complex is termed a(n) __________.lipoprotein
Transferrin is an example of which kind of plasma proteinmetalloprotein
Plasminogen is converted to its active form by an enzyme calledtpa
Which organ secretes most of the plasma proteins?liver
It transports iron ions in the plasmatranferrin
Which feature of WBCs makes them particularly important in tissue injuryThey can squeeze out through blood vessel walls into tissues.
The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzymethrombin
Aged and damaged erythrocytes are broken down by macrophages in thespleen, liver, and bone marrow.
In which phase of hemostasis does local contraction of the injured blood vessel occur?vascular phase
Which ions affect almost every aspect of the clotting process?calcium ions and vitamin K
red pigment that gives blood its colorheme
mature red blood cellerythrocyte
what activates plasminogenthrombin and t-pa
Jaundice results from the build up of ______ in tissues due to liver or bild duct problemsBilirubin
Myeloid stem cells produceMonocytes
female hematocrit levels are ususally37-47
basophils releasehistamine
avg lifespan for a RBC120 days
erythropoises requires _____; proper clotting ability requires _______vitamin B12, Vitamin K
transferrin is an example of aglobulin
Which of the following become macrophages when they leave the bloodstream and enter peripheral tissue?Monocytes
Which of the following occures after a cut to the blood vessel?Vascular spasm at the site of injury
ringer’s solutiondoes not increase the amount of oxygen being carried to the body tissues
endothelial cells release which of the following in response to a vascular trauma such as a cuttissue factor
Microcytic anemia is associated withiron deficient anemia
Vitamin K is fat soluble and some dietary fats is require for absorption. Fruit juice diets case bruising. What body process is being affected?Hemostasis
The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by therelease of tissue factor by damaged epithelium