According To The Text, How Do Sedentism And Domestication Represent A Change In Worldview

Anthropology 101 Test 2

A cultural anthropology of the human past focusing on material evidence of human modification of the physical environment is calledAnthropology
All material objects constructed by humans or near-humans revealed by archaeology are considered part of theArchaeological record
The archaeological approach that takes as its objective explaining the cultural processes that led to ways of life and material cultures of different kinds is calledProcessual archaeology
The approach in archaeology that stresses the role of individual human agency in the archaeological record is calledPostprocessual archaeology
To an archaeologist, which of the following would be considered a feature at an archaeological site?The wall of a house
A precise geographical location of the remains of past human activity is an archaeologicalSite
Objects that have been deliberately and intelligently shaped by human or near-human activity are calledArtifacts
The study of the way people in present-day societies use artifacts and structures on the sites where they live, and how these objects become part of the archaeological record is calledEthnoarchaeology
The study of the various processes that affect the formation of a particular site, explaining how certain objects in that site (such as bones or stone tools) came to be where they are found, is calledTaphonomy
Which of the following factors prevents artifacts from decaying?Extreme cold
Extreme heat and dryness Waterlogged sites free of oxygen
The physical examination of a geographical region in which promising sites are most likely to be found isSurvey archaeology
The systematic uncovering of archaeological remains through the removal of the deposits of soil and other material covering them and accompanying them is calledExcavation
When archaeologists excavate a site, they alwaysExcavate a small part of a site to preserve the site for future archaeologists
The sensing method that reflects pulsed radar waves off features below the surface is calledGround Penetrating Radar (GPR)
A computer-aided system for the collection, storage, retrieval, analysis, and presentation of spatial data of all kinds is calledGeographic Information Systems (GIS)
When artifacts and structures from a particular time and place are grouped together, they are called a(n)Assemblage
Ian Hodder’s work among several contemporary ethnic groups in eastern Africa showed thatEar ornaments were symbols of group identity
Ian Hodder warns archaeologists that they may make serious errors ifThey fail to recognize that the distribution of tool styles is the most reliable indicator of the boundaries of archaeological cultures
The different ways that people in different societies go about meeting their subsistence needs are calledSubsistence strategies
A supporter of unilineal evolutionary theory who had widespread influence wasLewis Henry Morgan
A small, egalitarian social grouping whose members neither farm nor herd, but depend on wild food resources is called aBand
A society generally larger than a band, whose members usually farm for a living is aTribe
Special-purpose groupings that may be organized on the basis of sex, economic role or personal interest are calledSodalities
A society in which one person and his relatives have privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige is called aChiefdom
A person’s social position in a group is that person’sStatus
A stratified society that possesses a territory that is defended from outside enemies with an army and from internal disorder with police is called aState
In some parts of the world, archaeological sitesAre of tourist interest
Play an important role in identity formation Create controversy
In the United States, the objections of Native American groups to the excavation of indigenous burials has become recognized in a law that is calledNative American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
The 9300-year-old skeleton found in Washington state touched off a legal battle over the repatriation of the skeleton known asKennewick Man
In 2001, the Taliban in Afghanistan destroyedGiant statues of the Buddha
Looting archaeological sitesMakes any scientific analysis of a site impossible
In the United States, federal, state, and local legislative actions that require the consideration of environmental and cultural factors in the use of federal, state, or funds for development has led to the development ofCultural resource management archaeology
A research approach that explores why women’s contributions have been systematically written out of the archaeological record and suggests new approaches to the human past that include such contributions isFeminist archaeology
According to the text, the greatest challenge to male bias in archaeological interpretation concerns the roles women played inStone-tool manufacture
Traditional archaeological interpretations of stone toolsFavor highly formalized, elaborately retouched, standardized core tools Assume that stone tools were made for men to hunt with
Downplay or ignore the numerous flake tools that are found in sites
Joan Gero’s analysis of stone-tool use over time at the site of Huaricoto in highland Peru argues thatWomen probably made and used stone tools during the later period, when the site had become a village settlement, but they were utilitarian flake tools
According to the text, _________ archaeology is critical of the assumption that the meanings of artifacts across space and over time should be interpreted in terms of a universal male-female divisionGender
In the text, the discussion of Chumash burial practices in the section on gender archaeology illustratesThat in burial, the status of undertaker was more significant than the gender of the individual
Janet Spector’s excavation of a site near Jordan, Minnesota, focused onPost-European contact between indigenous people and settlers
Janet Spector’s archaeological work was unusual becauseDakota and non-Dakota were collaborating in teaching Dakota language, oral history, ethnobotany, ecology, and history at the site while digging continued
The study of archaeological sites associated with written records is calledHistorical archaeology
To ensure that the multidisciplinary research project carried out in Kakadu National Park in Australia was conducted in a responsible and respectful way, members of the local Aborigine communityHad a member supervise the project
Insisted that the archaeologists complete work at one site before moving on to another
Learned archaeological procedures
Today, many archaeologists are taking the view that they mustBecome cosmopolitan
Find a way to deal with a range of local and global stakeholders who have their own views of how cultural heritage should be managed
What is the preservation paradox referred to in the text?The concept of preservation is itself culturally conceived.
One group’s idea of preservation can be another group’s idea of destruction.
What concept does Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh suggest as “a frame archaeologists can use to begin deliberations on ethical predicaments”?Complex stewardship
Human interference with the reproduction of another species, with the result that specific plants and animals become more useful to people and dependent on them is calledDomestication
The space a species occupies and what it eats is called itsEcological niche
The sum of all the natural selection pressures to which a population is exposed is referred to as a(n)Evolutionary niche
When an organism actively perturbs the environment or when it actively moves into a different environment, it is engaging inNiche construction
David Rindos argues that plant domestication came about becauseThere were natural selection effects on the plants based on the unconscious activities of people in eating and propagating the plants
A conflict among scholars concerning domestication centers onWhether were people were aware of what they were doing in intervening in the gene pool of wild plants
The systematic modification of the environments of plants and animals to increase their productivity and usefulness is calledAgriculture
The systematically modified environment (or constructed niche) that becomes the only environment within which domesticated plants can flourish is referred to asAgroecology
According to Bruce Smith, the ancestors of domesticated seed plants wereWeedy generalists that thrived in disturbed environments
To be dispersed successfully in its wild state, wheat requiresA brittle rachis
Compared with wild wheat, domesticated wheatIs better tasting
Has a larger seed head
Has six rows of kernels rather than two
The process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place is calledSedentism
Which of the following is NOT evidence for animal domestication?Absence of animal species outside its natural range
Why is the discovery of remains of many immature male herd animals at a site taken as evidence of human involvement with a herd?Hunters kill animals they find; they do not go out of their way to kill only young males.
Only a small number of males are required for reproduction in a managed herd.
Which of the following characteristics is NOT desirable in an animal if domestication is the goal?Difficult to control
The earliest evidence for goat herding dates to about11,000 years ago
The stage in human-animal relationships that is characterized by selective hunting of herds is calledControlled hunting
In which stage in human-animal relationships do people begin to control the movements of a herd?Loose herding
Richard Meadow argues that herding represents a complete change in human attitudes toward and relationships with animals. Why?The focus shifts from the hunted animal to their offspring
Which of the following is NOT a theory for the cause of domestication?Independent invention
A population is living off a secure subsistence base, eating plants and animals caught by hunting, fishing, and gathering. The population expands, and as it does, it puts pressure on the resource base, forcing people to eat “third-choice” foods, especially grains. They discovered that the grain responded to human efforts to increase yields, and they came to rely increasingly on it. This scenario would fit best with which of the following theories of agricultural development?Broad spectrum foraging theory
A modern multiple-strand theory of domestication includes the local effects ofClimate
Environment Social organization
The first evidence of the cultural tradition called the Natufian is found at about how many years before the present?12,500
Which of the following is evidence that the Natufians lived in relatively permanent settlements?Bones of young gazelles and migratory birds at the sites Permanent buildings at settlement sites
According to the text, both Belfer-Cohen and Henry argue that extensive Natufian artistic activity was connected withHandling social tensions
The evidence from Natufian burials leads scholars like Donald Henry to conclude thatThere was unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige in Natufian society
How did the Natufians respond to the changes in the resources they depended on?Some began to keep cereal plants growing in areas that were no longer ideal. Some returned to a nomadic foraging way of life.
The appearance of domesticated plants is taken to be the end of one great cultural period and the beginning of another. The period that ENDS with the beginning of domestication is called thePaleolithic
Which of the following was one of the first crops domesticated in Southwest Asia?Barley
The culture in which the agricultural subsistence strategy expanded rapidly was thePPNB
In Mesoamerica, which of the following appeared together?Squash, maize
Archaeologists are coming to agree that domestication was everywhere invented byComplex foragers living in areas of relatively abundant resources
As cited in the text, Zeder and Smith argue that peopleTried a variety of different plants and animals to see which could be useful domesticated resources
Were actively and deliberately shaping adaptive niches
Which of the following is a consequence of domestication?Decline in quality of diet
Reliance on smaller number of plants Environmental degradation
According to the text, how do sedentism and domestication represent a change in worldview?Land is transformed into owned territories
Following Polanyi, Rhoda Halperin connects locational movements, or “changes of place,” withEcological relationships
Following Polanyi, Rhoda Halperin connects appropriational movements, or “changes of hands” withEconomic relationships
The subsistence strategy based on collecting a wide range of plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering isBroad spectrum foraging theory
Social relations in which no great differences in wealth, power, or prestige divide members from one another are calledEgalitarian social relations
A form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige is calledSocial stratification
Which period of history began with the domestication of plants 10,300 years ago, and is referred to as the “New Stone Age”?The Neolithic
The production of amounts of food that exceed the basic subsistence needs of the population is calledSurplus production
Particular dedication to various occupations or social roles usually found in socially complex societies is calledOccupational specialization
Which of the following is archaeological evidence for social complexity?Monumental architecture
Which of the following is NOT a form of monumental architecture?Farmhouse
Constructions of a greater-than-human scale are examples ofMonumental architecture
Archaeologists digging at a site in southwest Asia find a series of burials that differ in size, construction, and the quantity of objects found in each. The archaeologists might conclude that the society responsible for the burials wasStratified
Michael Hoffman suggested that the massive expenditure of resources by early elites on luxury goods was aWay of demonstrating the superior power of the rulers
When archaeologists find unique styles in architecture, pottery, textiles, and other artifacts distributed uniformly over a wide area, they call this aCultural horizon
Objects buried with a corpse are known asGrave goods
Sherds are pieces of brokenPots
Which of the following has been an explanation proposed for the rise of complex societies?The need arose to construct and maintain irrigation systems in dry regions. Population pressure required someone to exercise power to allocate resources and keep social chaos from erupting.
Sedentary life in farming villages gave people the leisure time to invent social and
technological complexity.