Alan Neuringer Demonstrated That With Reinforcement, _____ Could Learn To Behave Randomly.

Chapter 5: Reinforcement

1. E. L. Thorndike’s studies of learning started as an attempt to understand _______.
a. operant conditioning
b. the psychic reflex
c. animal intelligence
d. maze learning
animal intelligence
Thorndike complained that _______ evidence provided a “supernormal psychology of animals.”
a. anecdotal
b. case study
c. informal experimental
d. intuitive
Anecdotal
In one of Thorndike’s puzzle boxes, a door would fall open when a cat stepped on a treadle, thus allowing the cat to reach food outside the box. Eventually the cat would step on the treadle as soon as it was put into the box. Thorndike concluded that ________.
a. the reasoning ability of cats is quite remarkable
b. treadle stepping increased because it had a “satisfying effect”
c. the treadle is a CS for stepping
d. learning meant connecting the treadle with freedom and food
treadle stepping increased because it had a “satisfying effect”
Thorndike plotted the results of his puzzle box experiments as graphs. The resulting curves show a _____ with succeeding trials.
a. decrease in time
b. decrease in errors
c. change in topography
d. increase in the rate of behavior
decrease in time
The law of effect says that _______.
a. satisfying consequences are more powerful than annoying consequences
b. behavior is a function of its consequences
c. how an organism perceives events is more important than the events themselves
d. effective behavior drives out ineffective behavior
Behavior is a function of its consequences
Thorndike made important contributions to all of the following fields except _____.
a. educational psychology
b. animal learning
c. social psychology
d. psychological testing
Social psychology
Thorndike emphasized that we learn mainly from _______.
a. errors
b. repeated trials
c. success
d. social experiences
Success
Operant learning is sometimes called ________ learning.
a. free
b. higher-order
c. instrumental
d. reward
Instrumental
________ gave Skinner’s experimental chamber the name, “Skinner box.”
a. Fred Keller
b. E. L. Thorndike
c. John Watson
d. Clark Hull
Clark Hull
Operant learning may also be referred to as _______.
a. trial-and-error learning
b. effects learning
c. non-Pavlovian conditioning
d. instrumental learning
Instrumental learning
Mary’s grandmother, Pearl, is from the Old Country. Although she knows some English, she continues to speak her native tongue. Pearl can’t go anywhere without a member of the family because she can’t communicate with people about prices, directions, bus routes, etc. Pearl’s resistance to learning English is most likely the result of ______.

a. a lack of intelligence
b. age. Studies show that after the age of 60 learning a second language is nearly impossible.
c. the length of time she has spent speaking her native language
d. the benefits she receives for not speaking English

the benefits she receives for not speaking English
Mary decides to try to modify Pearl’s behavior (see above item). She and the rest of the family refuse to respond to any comment or request by Pearl that they know she is capable of expressing in English. For example, if during dinner she says, “Pass the potatoes” in English, she gets potatoes; if she says it in her native language she gets ignored. The procedure being used to change Pearl’s behavior is ______.

a. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
c. adventitious reinforcement
d. punishment

positive reinforcement
Charles Catania identified three characteristics that define reinforcement. These include all of the
following except _______.

a. a behavior must have a consequence
b. the consequence of the behavior must be positive
c. a behavior must increase in strength
d. the increase in strength must be the result of the behavior’s consequence

the consequence of the behavior must be positive
The one thing that all reinforcers have in common is that they _______.
a. strengthen behavior
b. are positive
c. feel good
d. provide feedback
strengthen behavior
. The number of operant procedures indicated in the contingency square is ______.
a. two
b. four
c. six
d. nine
four
Positive reinforcement is sometimes called _______.
a. escape training
b. positive training
c. satisfier training
d. reward learning
reward learning
Negative reinforcement is also called _______.
a. punishment
b. aversive training
c. escape-avoidance training
d. reward training
escape-avoidance training
Alan Neuringer demonstrated that with reinforcement, _____ could learn to behave randomly.
a. preschoolers
b. cats
c. rats
d. pigeons
pigeons
Skinner describes some of his most important research in _______.
a. Verbal Behavior
b. The Behavior of Organisms
c. Particulars of My Life
d. Animal Intelligence
The Behavior of Organisms
. The author of your text calls Skinner the ______.
a. Newton of psychology
b. Thorndike of free operant work
c. discoverer of reinforcement
d. Darwin of behavior science
Darwin of behavior science
The opposite of a conditioned reinforcer is a ______.
a. tertiary reinforcer
b. secondary reinforcer
c. primary reinforcer
d. generalized reinforcer
primary reinforcer
All of the following are recognized kinds of reinforcers except ______.
a. primary
b.contrived
c. secondary
d. classical
classical
Donald Zimmerman found that a buzzer became a positive reinforcer after it was repeatedly paired with ______.
a. food
b. water
c. escape from shock
d. morphine
water
The level of deprivation is less important when the reinforcer used is a(n) _________reinforcer.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. unexpected
d. intrinsic
secondary
Secondary reinforcers are also called _______ reinforcers.
a. transient
b. conditioned
c. second-order
d. acquired
conditioned
Money is a good example of a _______ reinforcer.
a. primary
b. tertiary
c. generalized
d. transient
generalized
The Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert may have involved operant as well as
Pavlovian learning because the loud noise ______.
a. occurred as Albert reached for the rat
b. occurred while Albert was eating
c. did not bother Albert initially
d. was aversive
occurred as Albert reached for the rat
Studies of delayed reinforcement document the importance of ______.
a. contiguity
b. contingency
c. inter-trial interval
d. deprivation level
contiguity
Schlinger and Blakely found that the reinforcing power of a delayed reinforcer could be increased by
________.
a. increasing the size of the reinforcer
b. preceding the reinforcer with a stimulus
c. providing a different kind of reinforcer
d. following the reinforcer with a stimulus
preceding the reinforcer with a stimulus
An action that improves the effectiveness of a reinforcer is called a ______.
a. motivating operation
b. reward booster
c. contrived reinforcer
d. activator
motivating operation
. ________ demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could be reinforcing.
a. Olds and Milner
b. Skinner
c. Barnes and Noble
d. Hull
Olds and Milner
32. _____is a neurotransmitter that seems to be important in reinforcement.
a. Dopamine
b. Stupamine
c. Intelamine
d. Actomine
Ref: 151
Dopamine
Clark Hull’s explanation of reinforcement assumes that reinforcers _____.
a. stimulate the brain
b. reduce a drive
c. activate neurotransmitters
d. leave a neural trace
Ref: 154
reduce a drive
. The best title for the figure below is ______.
a. Motivation and Line Drawing
b. The Effect of Practice without Reinforcement
c. Trial and Error Learning
d. Improvement in Line Drawing with Practice

Ref. 155

The Effect of Practice without Reinforcement
Sylvia believes that the reinforcement properties of an event depend on the extent to which it provides
access to high probability behavior. Sylvia is most likely an advocate of _______ theory.
a. drive-reduction
b. relative value
c. response deprivation
d. random guess
Ref: 155
relative value
Premack’s name is most logically associated with _______.
a. drive reduction theory
b. relative value theory
c. response deprivation theory
d. equilibrium theory
Ref: 155
relative value theory
The Premack principle says that reinforcement involves _______.
a. a reduction in drive
b. an increase in the potency of a behavior
c. a relation between behaviors
d. a satisfying state of affairs
Ref: 156
a relation between behaviors
According to ___________ theory, schoolchildren are eager to go to recess because they have been deprived of the opportunity to exercise.
a. drive-reduction
b. relative value
c. response deprivation
d. stimulus substitution : 157
response deprivation
The distinctive characteristic of the Sidman avoidance procedure is that _______.
a. the aversive event is signaled
b. the aversive event is not signaled
c. the aversive event is signaled twice
d. there is no aversive event
Ref: 162
the aversive event is not signaled
Douglas Anger proposed that there is a signal in the Sidman avoidance procedure. The signal is ________.
a. reinforcement
b. the aversive event
c. fatigue
d. time
Ref: 162
time
According to the one-process theory of avoidance, the avoidance response is reinforced by _______.
a. escape from the CS
b. a reduction in the number of aversive events
c. positive reinforcers that follow aversive events
d. non-contingent aversives
Ref: 163
a reduction in the number of aversive event
True/False:
Another term for operant is instrumental
True
True/False:
Positive reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior
True
True/False:
According to Skinner, people are rewarded, but behavior is reinforced
True
True/False:
Reprimands, restraint, captivity, and electrical shocks can be reinforcers.
True
True/False:
Negative reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior
True
True/False:
A general assumption of behavioral research is that any feature of a behavior may be strengthened by
reinforcement, so long as reinforcement can be made contingent on that feature
True
True/False:
Negative reinforcement and punishment are synonyms.
False
True/False:
people can learn to behave randomly provided that reinforcers are made contingent on random acts
True
True/False:
Reinforcement is often said to increase the frequency of a behavior, but research suggestss that any feature of a behavior (e.g., intensity, duration, form, etc.) can be strengthened if a reinforcer can be made contingent on that feature.
True
True/False:
Operant learning probably always involves Pavlovian conditioning as well.
True
True/False:
In operant learning, the word contingency usually refers to the degree of correlation between a
behavior and a consequence.
True
True/False:
Vomiting is ordinarily an involuntary response, but sometimes it can be modified by operant procedures
True
True/False:
Pavlovian and operant learning often occur together
True
True/False:
The more you increase the size of a reinforcer, the less benefit you get from the increase
True
True/False:
Studies demonstrate that operant learning is as effective with involuntary behavior, such as the
salivary reflex, as it is with voluntary behavior
False
True/False:
With reinforcement, it is easy for a person to lower his blood pressure
False
True/False:
Using ESB as a reinforcer, Talwar and his colleagues got such effective control over the behavior of rats that journalists called the animals robo-rats
True
True/False:
Unexpected reinforcers produce more dopamine than expected reinforcers.
True
The experimental chamber developed by Skinner is often called a _________.Skinner Box
Positive reinforcement is sometimes called ______ learningReward
Negative reinforcement is sometimes called ______ learning.Escape-avoidance
Reinforcers such as praise, positive feedback, and smiles are called ______ reinforcers.Secondary/conditioned
_______ reinforcers are those that have been arranged by someoneContrived
The area of the brain that seems to be associated with reinforcement is called the reward _______.Pathway/circuit
Clark Hull’s name is associated with the _______ theory of reinforcementdrive-reduction
The _______ principle states that high probability behavior reinforces low probability behavior.Premack
_______ theory assumes that a behavior becomes reinforcing when we are prevented from performing it as ofen as we normally wouldResponse deprivation
In _______ _ a response is followed by the withdrawal of, or reduction in the intensity
of, an aversive stimulus.
negative reinforcement
Operant learning is often described as trial-and-error learning, but Thorndike argued that behavior was selected by ______.success