An Operculus Covers Which Body Part Of A Bony Fish

Biology part 2

What is biological evolution?The change in the gene pool of a population over time.
What would describe Lamarck’s ideas about evolution?A mouse loses its tail in a flight. It’s offspring will not have tails.
What term describes Darwin’s idea that present organisms are related to past organisms?Common descent
What explains Darwin’s theory of natural selection?Individuals in a population with traits best suited for that environment survive and increase in number.
Which theory states that the more recent species are changed descendants of earlier species?Descent with modification
According to the theory of______, today’s organisms evolved from past organisms.Common descents
The theory of modern synthesis states that evolution invokes changes in a population’s___.Gene pool
When did Lamarck publish his ideas on evolution?Early 1800’s
Natural selection is based on Darwin’s observation that individuals most likely to survive and reproduce are those_____.With traits best suited to their current environment.
The modern synthesis theory states that evolution occurs through changes in the gene pool of_______.Populations
What is biological evolution?Changes in the gene pool of a population over time.
A gene pool consists of all the genes within a_____.Population
Which idea did Lamarck propose that was rejected by his fellow scientists?Acquired traits can be passed to offspring.
Over many generations, darker fur color becomes more common in a population of squirrels living in a shady area. This is an example of________.Adaptation
According to the theory of_____, today’s organisms evolved from past organisms.Common descent
How do scientists determine the actual age of a fossil?By using radioactive elements
Pieces of rock and organic material pressed together form______.Sedimentary rock
A fossil found under a layer of rock is usually______.Older than the rock
What is a measurement of the Earth’s history divided into time periods?Geologic time scale
The study of biogeography includes information about the location of______.Fossils and living organisms
What theory states that the major land masses of the Earth move?Continental drift
What is the outer layer of the Earth called?Crust
Wegener’s theory of_____ says that land masses move slowly.Continental drift
Why do the body stirred of some species support species support Darwin’s theories?Because they have similar limbs
A cell can make mistakes when is copies____ in its DNA.Nucleotides
What is geologic time?All the time that has passed since Earth formed
What is geologic time scale?A table that dives Earth’s history into time periodsz
What is biogeography?The study of the geographical distribution of fossils and living organisms.
What is the continental drift?A theory that the major land masses of the Earth move
What is fossil recordThe history of life on Earth, based on fossils that have been discovered?
What is homologous structure?The body parts that are similar in related animals.
What is plate tectonics?A theory that the Earth’s surface is made of large sections of crust that move
On his trips to Galápagos Islands, Darwin determined that animal on the islands_______.Looked like animals in South America.
What does the presence of homologous structures in different organisms suggest?Common ancestry
The theory of plate tectonics is about the____.Movement of large sections of Earth’s crust.
Some scientist study’s the way and living organisms are distributed, or spread out, on the Earth. What is this area of study called?Biogeography
What is one way that changes can occur in a DNA sequence?Through mistakes during DNA copying
Which type of rock may contain fossils?Sedimentary
What is Earth’s crust?That outermost layer on Earth’s surface
_______provide evidence of common ancestry among organisms.Similarities in DNA sequences
Recombination shuffles genes by recombining what?Alleles
What five processes affect evolution?Mutation, recombination, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection
What is the creation of new combinations of alleles called?Recombination
An orphaned female lion joins a band of lions, the addition of her genes to their gene pool is______.Gene flow
Half of the polar bears in a small population die. This population may experience changes due to_______.Genetic drift
When Hardy and Weinberg worked on their equilibrium principle, what main assumption did they make?Population do not change.
The Hardy-Weinberg principle is written as an equation: p2 +2pq+q2=1. What does the q represent?Frequency of the dominant allele
What is mutation?Change in the sequence of DNA.
What is recombination?Creation of new combinations of alleles
What is gene flow?Movement of genes into or out of a population.
What is genetic drift?Random changes in the gene pool of a small population.
What is natural selection?Process by which organisms best suited to the environment survive, reproduce, and pass on their genes.
What is one consequence of genetic drift?Loss of genetic variation
What does NOT add new alleles to a population gene pool?Genetic drift
What term describes the movement of alleles into and out of a population?Gene flow
Recombination occurs during_____.Meiosis
When no living members of a species exist, the species_____.Has gone extinct
What is recombination?New groupings of alleles in offspring
Which scenario causes gene flow?An animal moves to a new population and mates.
What is one reason that cheetahs are endangered?Habitat loss
Which process adds new genes to a gene pool?Gene flow
What is an example of artificial selection?A farmer crosses toe kinds of corn. He produces a new, better tasting type of corn.
How many alleles for sickle cell disease remain in the gene pool?2
What is the purpose of natural selection?To keep life going even as the environment changes.
Which term describes when individuals leave more offspring than other individuals?Differential reproduction
Cattle are bred to create offspring that produce a lot of milk. What is this an ex of?Artificial selection.
People with one sickle cell allele are not likely to get malaria. What is this an example of?Natural selection
What is overproductionWhen organisms produce more offspring than can survive
What is differential reproduction?When individuals leave more offspring than other individuals.
What is heterozygous?Having chromosomes that contain an identical pair of genes that do not code for the same trait form.
What is homozygous?Having chromosomes that co tai. An identical pair of genes for a particular trait.
What is malaria?A tropical disease caused by a parasite
A scientists uses artificial selection to produce a new type of cow. Compared to their parents, the new cows are_____.The same species with a different genetic makeup
How is the sickle-cell allele maintained through natural selection?Heterozygous individuals pass the dominant and recessive alleles to offspring.
What must be done to breed dogs for a particular trait?Mate two dogs that have the desired trait.
Some individual produce more offspring than others. Which term describes this observation?Differential reproduction
Why do populations have variation in certain traits?Different individuals have different alleles.
Over time, why does natural selection continue to work?Environments are always changing.
What is required for a person to have sickle-cell disease?The person is homozygous for the trait.
For sickle-cell disease, assume S is the dominant allele and s the recessive allele. Which genotypes are possible for offspring of a carrier (Ss) and a person who lacks the sickle-cell allele (SS)?SS, Ss
What evidence exists for macro evolution?Fossils
The formal of a new species can result from____.Macro evolution
What do scientists often use to study micro evolution?Laboratory studies
What was the cause of the increase in the numbers of black moths in England in the 1800’s?Natural selection
What determines an organism’s phenotype?Genes and environment
What do evolutionary biologists study?Genetic changes within and among populations
At one time, dinosaurs lived in Earth. Today they are extinct. This relates to_______.Macro evolution
What minor changes can occur over a few generations. The changes produce variations in a population. This relates to_____.Micro evolution
Moth populations changed from mostly lighted colored to mostly dark colored in the 1800’s. This relates to_____.Micro evolution
Changes in groups of organism over time produce variations in a population. This relates to____.Both macro evolution and micro evolution
Over million of years, birds developed as species. This relates to______.Macro evolution
What is macroevolutionMajor changes in populations over a long time
Which evolutionary mechanism caused the increase in dark-colored Boston betularia moths in England in the 1800s?Natural selection
What is a part of microevolution?Genetic drift
What is NOT part of macroevolution?Genetic drift
What do scientists often use to study macroevolution?The fossil record
What caused England’s Boston betularia moth populations to change over time form light colored to dark colored?Changes in allele frequencies
What statement about microevolution and macroevolution is true?Microevolution can lead to macroevolution.
What is one example of a phenotypic change that is not genetic?Humans are larger than they were 100 yrs ago.
Why was dark wing color advantageous for moths in the late 1800s in England?Blending into darkened tree bark hid them from predators.
What is used to classify a species based on the body form of organisms?Morophology
What specific differences about the finches on the Galápagos Islands were great insert to Darwin?Beak structure
What happens when members from separated populations do not reproduce with each other?They become separate species
Why are horses and donkeys considered different species, even though they produce offspring?The offspring is not fertile
What is niche?An organism’s living and no living interactions with its environment.
Which type of speciation occurred among the Galápagos Islands finches?Allopathic speciation
____describes why similar organisms do not interbreed because of a physical barrier.Allopathic speciation
Which is the largest group of organisms that can interbreed?Species
What is morphology?The study of differences in body forms.
Which idea explains Darwin’s observation about Galápagos Islands finches?Biological species concept
What must occur for the gene pool within population to change?natural selection or genetic drift
While studying finches, what did Darwin observe?Finches looked alike, but ate different things.
How is sympathetic speculation similar to allopathic speciation?They both are mechanisms by which new species arise.
Which key morphological feature is used to classify organisms as mammals?Mammary glands
Two populations that are separated by a mountains range can no longer interbreed to produce fertile offspring. This is an example of____.Allopathic speciation
Why are horses and donkeys considered different species even though they can interbreed?Because their offspring are infertile
Which two fields of study provide the core information that is used to classify organisms?Morphology and biochemistry
What factor can cause 2 populations to become reproductively isolated?Geographical barrier
What describes asexual reproduction?One parent organism and no egg or sperm
When members of a species become separated by geography and lose the ability to interbreed, how would scientists classify them?2 separate species
How does allopathic speciation occur?A geographical barrier
How did Dobzhansky and Mayr explain the origin of species?It happens through allopathic speciation.
What term describes a species that shows little change over time?Stasis
What statement describes the punctuated equilibrium theory?Species stay the same for a long time and then change quickly due to environmental changes.
When glacial ice moved into North America, some organisms survived without changing by_____.Moving to new areas
What is coordinated stasis?A patterned in which most new species appear at about the same time.
Today, most species are in_____.Stasis
What ideas would follow from the Dobzhansky-Mayr theory of speciation?Geographic isolation happens before speciation
What theory states that species stay the same for a long time and then change quickly because of environmental changes?Punctuated equilibrium
How are Dobzhansky and Mayr’s ideas about the origin of species similar to Darwin’s?They thought the evolution of new species is linked to environmental changes.
What is coordinated stasis?A pattern of speciation in which most species in an area appear at about the same time.
According to the theory of punctuated equilibrium, at what rate does speciation occur?After periods of stasis, a new species evolve relatively rapidly
Paleontologist have found evidence that matter after a major extinction occurs,______.Many new species often appear at about the same time.
Which event is the most likely to cause for the four periods when punctuated equilibrium seems to have occurred?Global warming
Evidence for coordination stasis is found in___.The fossil record
The evidence that species change gradually over time is found in___.The fossil record
After speciation occurs, what happens to the species’ gene pool?They become more and more different over time.
What best describes how long it usually takes speciation to occur?Several generations
What do you call a group of different populations that live in the same area?A community
A species becoming dependent on another species_____.Co-adaptation
The more stable an area, the more____ are in the area.Species
Species are disappearing almost a thousand times faster than they are forming.Human impact
The fossil record shows that periods of___ are followed by diversity in organisms.Mass extinction
What happens when organisms populate a new area of species and are isolated geographically from other population of the same species?Speciation occurs
A new species that forms in only one generation is an example of____.Instantaneous speciation
Scientists have observed that the size of a population influences the genetic health of a species. What is considered to be healthy population size?500
How does the rate of extinction compare to the rate of species formation on Earth today?The rate of extinction is faster.
The mass extinctions that occurred 250 million years ago and 65 million years ago may have been due to gradual processes or_____.A large comet or asteroid striking earth
Why are small populations more prone to genetic disease?They have s greater frequency of harmful genes
How does mass extinction affect species that survive?They fill new roles in the changed environment
What has occurred when large numbers of species die over a short period of time?Mass extinction
What characterizes speciation in new areas, such as a recently formed island?Rapid speculations occurs as populations adapts to the environment
How does the size of a landmass relate to species diversity?Larger land masses have greater diversity
How is a species named int the Linnaeus system?Each species has 2 word name
In the Linnaeus system, a(n)___ contains similar phyla.Kingdom
What does the first word in the 2 word scientific name of a species represent?Genus
What is the science of naming organisms called?Taxonomy
Plants are classified in the domain____.Eukarya
The scientific name of a living thing is made up of its genus and___names.Species
____are members of the simian Eukarya.Fungi
A____is not a living thing. It is made of genetic material inside a protein coat.Virus
What is one of the three domains?Eukarya
What is a member of the domain Eubacteria?E. Coli
What is the correct interpretation of the scientific name Homo sapiens?Homo is the genus and sapiens is the species.
What characteristics do scientists use to group species?Ancestors and DNA
What describes an extreme environment where Archaebacteria might live?In hot springs
What is true of all eukaryotes?Their cells have nuclei.
What 2 groups are the most similar in physical characteristics?Archaea and Eubacteria
What characteristics do all members of Eukarya have that members of Eubacteria do not have?Cells with nuclei
What is the purpose for assigning 2 names to classify organisms?The naming convention is the same throughout the world.
What describes an extreme environment where Archaebacteria might live?In hot springs
The science of classifying organisms based on features they share is called_____.Taxonomy
What belongs in the domain Eukarya?Fungus
What characteristics do scientists use to group species?Ancestors and DNA
Why did scientists make Archaebacteria its own kingdom?Archaebacteria have some unique characteristics.
What is an extremophile?An organism that lives in extreme conditions
What is NOT a trait of the members in the kingdom Archaebacteria?Require sunlight.
What is the source of energy for thermoacidophiles Archaebacteria?Sulfur
What are the needs of aerobic Eubacteria?Oxygen, nutrients, water, and moderate temperature
What is another name for rod shaped bacteria?Bacilli
_____ are Eubacteria with protective walls that are resistant to heat and cold.Endospores
Archaebacteria use____for movement.Flagella
What Eubacteria help plants in the production of proteins?Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Freezing food___ the action of bacteria.Slows
What does it mean for an organism to be anaerobic?It poisoned by oxygen
What term describes the whip-like structure that helps cells move through liquids?Flagellum
What are scientists who are searching for life on other planets studying Archaebacteria?They live in conditions similar to those likely to be found on other planets.
Which bacterial shape is the most common?Rod
Which is a role of Eubacteria in living systems?Decomposing dead plants and animals
What would likely live in the Great Salt Lake?Halophile
What is chemosynthetic organism?It uses sulfur or other elements as a source of energy.
What would likely live in a bog, a sewage treatment plant, or a cow’s intestine?Methanogen
What is a class of extremophile?Halophile
What kinds of bacteria are spherical?Cocci
Amoebas use___for movement.Pseudopods
What is the green scum you see in lakes?Algae
Most algae get energy from____.Sunlight
To which kingdom do slime molds belong?Kingdom Protista
What is a slime mold’s reproductive cell called?Spore
Paramecium use____to move and capture food.Cilia
What are Protista that act like fungi?Slime molds
What are seaweeds?Algae
What happens to a euglena when sunlight is not present?It absorbs food from the environment.
When would slime molds likely gather to form one, large structure?When food and water are scarce
What kind of protist causes dysentery?Amoeba
Where are most algae found?In fresh water and saltwater
Which type of protist is most like a plant?Algae
How are euglenas similar to plants?Hey make their own food in sunlight
What is true of flagellates?They can move through water
What is true of cilia?They are like hairs
How do fungi get their food?They decompose dead organisms
The fibrous mat that serves as an underground feeding network for fungi is called the____.Mycelium
Molds and mushrooms are both_____.Fungi
What is the role of bacteria in lichens?They provide nitrogen
What food product is made using a fungus?Cheese
How is yeast used?To make Bread rise
What kind of organism caused the Great Potato Famine is Ireland in the 1800s?A fungus
What do fungi give off often after they digest the food that they absorb?Carbon and nitrogen
What is a single-called fungus?Yeast
How do hyphae spread from one area to another?They grow quickly underground
How do fungi change complex food into simpler forms they can absorb?They give off enzymes that break down complex foods.
An organism is made of many cells, cannot move its own, and absorbs food from its environment. What kingdom does it belong to?Fungi
How is penicillin used?To kill bacteria that cause disease
What is the function of the vascular tissue, xylem and phloem, in plantsTransport
Phloem is made up living cells. Phloem takes sugars in the_____ to the roots.Leaves
Spores are produced by_____in the diploid phase.Meiosis
What is the most accurate statement about ferns?Ferns developed after mossed appeared
What is the function of sori?Sori release haploid cells
What is not nonvascular plants?Mosses
How are moss spores produced?By sporophytes through meiosis
Why are nonvascular plants short and small?They lack tubes for transport and support
Where do many of the plants in the phylum Polypodiophyta live?Forests
Moss spore form inside capsules that break open and shoot spores into the environment. Which does not help carry these spores to new areas?Rhizoids
Which is a vascular tissue in plants?Phloem
Which type of plant is a fern?Vascular plant
How are moss gametes produced?By gametophytes through mitosis
Which is a function of vascular tissue?To transport water and nutrients
Where does xylem transport water?From roots to leaves
What are the male and female reproductive organs in a flowering plant?Stamens and pistil
Plants in the phylum Coniferophyta are_____.Gymnosperms
During____, pollen moves from the stamen to the pistil.Pollination
Where does fertilization take place in conifers?In the ovary of female cone
Why is a flower’s stigma sticky?To catch pollen
About how many different angiosperm species have been found?250,000
How does interaction with birds help a flowering plant?Birds spread seeds and provide protection
Many flowers produce nectar. What is a purpose nectar?To attract birds and insects
What is found only in plants of the phylum Anthophyta?Flowers
What is the process by which animals, wind, and rain transfer pollen to the pistil of a flower?Pollination
What is the meaning of the term germinate?To start growth
What does a seed contain?A plant embryo and stored food
Which plant is not found in conifers?Flowers
What are two kinds of root system?Fibrous and taproot
What are the 3 layers that are found in roots?Epidermis, cortex, and inner root
Herbaceous plants____.Have smooth, green stems
The primary function of stems is to____.Support the leaves
What are the main parts of a leaf?Blade, stalk, and veins
What is the function of stomata?They control the exchange of gases
The outer, protective layer of a leaf is called the____.Epidermis
Which part of the root contains transport tubes?Inner root
What is example of phototropismA plant bending toward the light
When a vine grows around a fence, which response is it exhibiting?Thigmotropism
Which structure may be used to store food?Taproot
What is the outer covering of a leaf called?Epidermis
In which part of a leaf is food made?Blade
How many growing seasons do plants with herbaceous stems usually survive?One
In which part of a root is vascular tissue found?The inner layer
Which kind of root system contains many thin, branching roots?Fibrous
What is one function of plants stems?To transport water and food
A plant that responds to touch is showing which of the following?Thigmotropism
Where do new root cells form?Behind the root cap
Most animals have coordinated movement because their muscular and skeletal systems are controlled by____.The nervous system
An animal zygote divides to form_____.A blastula
How are all animals alike as heterotrophs?All animals need food to survive
Jellyfish, corals, and hydras are examples of which of the following?Cnidarians
How are flatworms and roundworms similar?They both have bilateral symmetry
Both flatworms and roundworms have a body called______.Bilateral symmetry
How do earthworms enrich planet earth?They tunnel through the soil, which allows air to enter
What types of cells contract to move an animal?Muscle cells.
What helps animal sperm cells move so that they can reach an egg?Flagella
What is a feature of the sponge’s body?It has two cell layers
Organisms that must eat food for energy are____.Heterotrophs
Which system controls the coordinated movement of animals?Nervous
Which term describes an organism made of many cells?Multicellular
How many copies of each chromosome are found in animal sex cells?1
Which is a feature of a flatworm?Thin bodies
Which divides many times to form a blastula?A zygote
What is a radula?A tongue like organ that is used for feeding.
Every mollusk has a head, body, and_____.muscular foot
What type of metamorphosis does a grasshopper go through firing development?Incomplete metamorphosis
How many pairs of legs do insects have?Three
Arthropoda have an exoskeleton which they shed as they grow. What is this process called?Molting
Which organism would be classified as an echinoderm?Sea star
Which organism would be classified as an arthropod?Crab
Which phylum would squid, octopuses, and slugs belong to?Mollusca
Which is the largest group of Arthropods?Insects
Which are the only invertebrates that can fly?Insects
What is one common function of an arthropod’s antennae?To smell
Which is a feature of all arthropods?Segmented bodies
Where do most crustaceans live?In water
Which feature would you find on an echinoderm?An endoskeleton
Which set of body parts does every mollusk have?Muscular foot, head, body
What is the function of a mollusk’s radula?It is used for feeding
Which arthropods have many body segments, with 2 pairs of legs on each segment?Centipedes
Young cricket in the early stages of incomplete metamorphosis resembles____.Adult crickets
Where do echinoderms live?In marine environments
What is found in all adult echinoderms?Radial symmetry
Identify the feature not unique to vertebrates.Skeleton
Into how many classes do scientists divide vertebrates?8 classes
What is the difference between ectoderm and endotherms?Temperature regulation
The_____of a fish helps it move up and down in the water.Swim bladder
Which event occurs during the metamorphosis of a frog?Frog larvae grow legs and lungs and lose their gills and tails
______have the highest brain-to-body mass ration of all large animals.Humans
The language and customs of a group of people make up their____.Culture
Which body parts do birds have?Feathers, beaks, and scales
Where do amphibian larvae live?Underwater
Which types of embryos have pharyngeal slits?All chordates
How does a warm-blooded animal get body heat?Through its metabolism
An operculus covers which body part of a bony fish?The gills
Which animals are the oldest vertebrate fossils?Fish with no jaws
Humans walk upright using 2 legs. This is called______locomotion.Bipedal
Most of the species in the class____ lay amniotic eggs.Reptilia
Where does a young marsupial develop?Inside a mother’s pouch
The backbone is made of many small units of bone or cartilage. What is each unit called?A vertebra
What do ethnologists do?They observe animal behavior.
Which of the following is example of an internal stimulus?Hunger pang
How is learned behavior different from innate behavior?Learned behavior results from experience
What term describes the way an organism responds to stimuli?Behavior
Which is an internal stimulus?Pain
What process causes behavior patterned to change over generations as result of reproductive success?Change through natural selection
A mouse runs for cover in the presence of a cat. The cat is an example of a(n)___stimulus.External
Which is an external stimulus?Heat
What term describes anything that causes an organism to react?Stimulus
A peacock spreading its tail to attract a mate is sending a(n)___stimulus.External
What term describes the way an organism responds to stimuli?Behavior
When birds chicks open their mouths, the mother bird immediately finds food and feeds them. The baby chicks’ response is an example_____.Innate behavior
Which of the following is an example of innate behavior?A male bird’s mating dance
Female mammal nursing her offspring is an example of what type of behavior?Parental care
Which is not a characteristic of imprinting?The mother must be present
Which best describes singing behavior in birds?Singing is in are; the species song is learned.
A bird that perfects the sound and notes of its species song as it ages shows what type of learning?Observational
Which is not part of the description for communication?Learning to signal
What is it called when an organism signals another that their interaction is not serious or threatening?Metacommunication
What type of behavior is characterized by display of body parts or release of a scent for the purpose of attracting a mate?Courtship
What term describes a chemical signal made in sweat glands?Pheromone
When an animal uses two kinds of signals together to abstain a response, there is a communication_____.Cycle
Why is the alarm calling of the vervet monkey an example of advanced communication?The response is learned and varies over time.
What type of communication occurs when a monkey gives a special, loud cry if it sees a bird of prey that might threaten the troop?Alarm call
Which type of response best describes a vervet monkey’s ability to make and understands alarm calls different predators?Learned
Which example shows an advanced understanding of the meaning and purpose of an animal’s communication?A gorilla that uses sign language to express itself
What term is used to describe the animal in a group that is the largest, strongest, or has the highest status?Dominant
What is an example of commensalism?Barnacles benefit from eating snakes, but they do not benefit the snakes.
A cat has fleas. The cat is a_____.Host
Fleas and dogs are in a symbiotic relationship called_____.Parasitism
The diversity of species in a community refers to the____.Number of different species
What do we all call colors or patterns that help an organism blend in or hide in its surroundings?Camouflage
An organism that feeds off another organism is called a_____.Parasite
The interactions that occur in a pond are part of a(n)____.Ecosystem
Barnacles live on whales. Whales carry the barnacles around, which helps the barnacles feed. The whales are unaffected. This is an example of______.Commensalism
The largest density an ecosystem can support for a particular population is called_____.Carrying capacity
Organisms leave population when they_____.Emigrate
Which of the following describes a boom period?As one population increases, the other population also increases.
Which tends to increase the size of a population?As one population increase another one as well increases
When the number of organisms increase in an ecosystem, the_____.Number of resources is usually the same.
Which distribution pattern has no order to how it is distributed through an ecosystem?Random
What distribution pattern describes pine trees on a pine tree farm?Uniform
Which is a density-dependent factor?Food
Which is likely to cause a population’s density to increase?Plenty of food
Ecological change in a community following a major disturbance is called____.Succession
Succession is the process of___ in a community.Ecological change
A community that experiences major changes undergoes____.Ecological change
Where is secondary succession likely to occur?In a forest that has burned
Which plants are the first to grow during primary succession?Mosses
Which is an example of a human disturbance in a community?Toxic spill
Which are the first organisms to start the process of primary succession?Microorganism
How does secondary succession differ from primary succession?Soil nutrients are already in place.
What does primary productivity measure?The rate at which phototrophs make organic matter
What is the direct source of energy for phototrophs?Sunlight
What kind of consumer is Mark when he eats the beef in a hamburger?Secondary
From where for most producers get energy?The sun
What do the arrows in a food chain represent?How energy moves from organism to organism
Which one is a chemotroph?A box turtle
Which term describes how a person gets energy?Chemotrophic
In a food chain, a bigger fish eats a smaller eats a smaller fish. What is the bigger fish called?Consumer
A phototrophs is to a chemotroph as____.A plant is to an animal
Which organism is an ecosystem is likely to be found at the top of an energy pyramid?Hawk
Which cycle is directly affected by burning fossil fuels?Carbon cycle
What do nitrifying bacteria do?Convert ammonium to nitrates
What happens when solar energy heats a body of water?Evaporation
Which is an example of precipitation?Snow
Which nutrient tends to cycle within single ecosystem?Phosphorous
What is the name of the process of liquid water changing into water vapor due to heating?Evaporation
Nutrients move through ecosystems in different ways. Which nutrient cycles through organisms, rivers, rain, and the atmosphere?Water
What is the main source of carbon in an ecosystem?The atmosphere
Which biome has trees and very tall grasses scattered throughout?Savanna
Which biome typically experiences hot summers, cold winters, and lots of rain?Temperate deciduous forest
What is the floor of an aquatic biome called?Benthic zone
Which biome has no large trees because much of the soul is frozen?Tundra
Ecosystems that experience the same climate conditions are grouped together into larger regions called_____.Biomes
The area where an ocean meets land is called the____zone.Intertidal
Which type of forest constrains several kinds of cone-bearing trees and typically receives a lot of snow in winter?Coniferous
Which is true of the regions near Earth’s equator?They receive more solar energy than the poles
What characteristics is used to divide aquatic biomes into 3 zones?Light exposure
What human disease can result from exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun?Skin cancer
Approximately how many species become extinct on Earth each day?100
To help ecosystems thrive, humans must gain a better understanding of_____.Ecology and environment
When sulfur dioxide reacts with water droplets in the air, it forms a substance that falls back to Earth as______.Acid Rain
Which is not a source of carbon dioxide gas?Plants
What affect does human activity have on many ecosystems?It destroys habitats
Introduced species often take over ecosystems because they usually_____.Have no competitors
What term is used to describe the clear-cutting of rain forests for their valuable lumber which often results in species loss?Deforestation
How does over-hunting cause a species’ population to decrease?Too few individuals remain to reproduce
Builders who values the environment may include____ in their development plans?A landscaped lawn
How does an endangered species differ from a threaten species?An endangered species is near extinction
What term do scientists use to describe all the different forms of life one Earth?Biodiversity
How can humans reduce the number of landfills?Produce less trash
What is not part of Earth’s biodiversityVolcanoes
Which is an important source of carbon monoxide emissions that contributes to the greenhouse effect?Vehicles
Builder who understand landscape ecology are mindful of what aspects of the environment?Local ecosystems
______use resources and scientific information to design ways to solve problems?Engineers
Where are the first reports of new scientific discoveries published?Scientific journals
Which is not a source of funding for scientific research?Scientific meetings
Biogeography is the study of the interaction between the______parts of the environment?Living and nonliving
What is the first step that both scientists and engineers use to approach a problem?Observation
What technological tools allow scientists to study bacteria?Microscopes
What field includes CAT scans and MRI scans as diagnostic tools?Medical technology
What might engineers use to test a new software design?Simulations.
Scientific and technological discoveries are accepted if their evidence can be______.Repeated
The______system includes the heartCirculatory
Which system moves the body?Muscular
Which system carries food and oxygen to cells?Circulatory
Which part of the skin keeps in heat?Fatty layer
Perspiration leaves the body through the_____.Sweet glands
Which system takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide?Respiratory
Which system sends messages to organs and tissues?Nervous
Which system produces gametes?Reproductive
What structures work in antagonistic pair to move bones?Skeletal muscles
What can result if calcium is not replaced in bone tissue?Osteoporosis
What type of muscle is most used when a person takes a leisurely walk?Skeletal
Which skeletal structure enclosed the reproductive organs?The pelvis
What is the function of spongy material called red marrow?It makes blood cells.
What covers the ends of bones in adults?Cartilage
What structures attach muscles to bones?Tendons
How many bones does a human adult have?206 bones
Food moves through the digestive tract by peristalsis, which is produced by wavelike contractions of______muscles.Involuntary
Which substance helps break down starch during digestion?Amylase
What role do villi play in the digestive process?They increase do villi play in the digestive process
Where does the digestive process begin?In the mouth
Food moves from the mouth to the stomach through which organ?Esophagus
Which process moves food through the esophagus?Peristalsis
Which organ is at the end of the digestive tract?Anus
Which structure helps move food to the pharynx?Tongue
Which organ are involved in elimination?Large intestine, liver, and blood
Which site in the digestive tract produces chyme?Stomach
At the tip of each bronchioles is____.Alveoli
During inhalation, air moves from the larynx to direct the________.Trachea
Which action removes carbon dioxide from the body?Exhaling
Which structures bring oxygen from the trachea to the lungs?Bronchi
Which occurs during inhalation?The rib cage expands
What statement about epithelium is correct?It is thin tissue that lines the alveoli.
Which structure is located between the trachea and a bronchiole?Bronchus
Which structure prevent food and liquids from inhale when a person swallows?The epiglottis
Which sequence correctly shows oxygen movement during respiration?Alveoli, capillaries, body cells
What is the largest artery in the bodyAorta
Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs enters the heart at what structure?Left atrium
What is the function of heart valves?They prevent blood from flowing backwards
What is the normal heart rate for an adult who is sitting quietly?70
A heart murmur is caused by defect in a(n)_____.Heart valve
What is the function of white blood cells?They fight infections
Which blood vessel receives blood from the trunk and legs?Inferior vena cava
A thrombus can clog an artery. What occurs when an artery in the brain is blocked?Stroke
Touching a hot stove stimulates which type of sensory receptor?Pain receptor
Which type of sensory receptor enables you to see?Photoreceptor
Which sensory receptors detect odors and tastes?Chemoreceptors
Which is not a function controlled by brain stem?Thinking
Hair cells in the ear decent motion through movement. These cells are classified as_________Mechanoreceptors
Which type of stimulus is detected by photoreceptors?Light
Which part of the brain directs incoming sensory messages so that you can see, hear, and smell?The thalamus
The brain communicates with the rest of the body through the_____.Spinal cord
How does the pineal gland regulate sleep?Secreting melatonin
Low blood levels of which substance would cause the release of more ADH into the blood?Fulid
Hormones secretes by the hypothalamus_____.Regulate the pituitary gland
Which structure connects each kidneys to the bladder?Ureter
What is the term for the chemical messenger that the endocrine glands produce?Hormones
Which is a way the body can cool down from a fever?By making more sweat
Through which structure does urine leave the body?Urethra
In the body, hormones move from one location to another through_______.The blood
Which is a way for the body to conserve water during periods of heavy sweating?It can filter less water out of the blood
Which is a function of nephrons?They filter water and solutes from blood.
Which is a description of fever?Increases body temperature
Which cells produce antibodies?B lymphocytes
Which activity is part of the inflammatory response?Complement proteins signaling phagocytes
Which directly attacks host cells that contain bacteria or viruses?T lymphocytes
Which term is another name for germ?Pathogen
How does fever help fight germs?It stops bacteria from growing
What happens when an antibody binds an antigen?It causes pathogens to stick together
Which is a function of the human immune system?To fight disease
Which structure connects a placenta to an embryo?Umbilical cord
During gestation, embryos normally develop in_____.The uterus
Which process occurs when an egg cell, blood, and pieces of uterine lining leave the body through the vagina?Menstruation
What is the name of the thick, milky fluid that feed and carries sperm cells outside the body?Semen
Semen and urine both exit the body through the ______.Urethra
When does menstruation occur?After an egg fails the fertilize
In a male body, where is the urethra is located?In the penis
Which structure connects the tests to the urethra?Vas deferens
What happens during ovulation?A follicle releases an egg into a galloping tube