Chapter 12 Romanesque Europe
|What purpose did Gislebertus’s image of the last judgement on the portal of saint- Lazare serve||It encouraged viewers to seek salvation by terrifying them.|
|Among those who would be judged favorably in Gislebertus’s Last Judgment are people carrying|
bags adorned with a shell and a cross. These figures represent ____.
|pilgrims to Jerusalem and Santiago|
|The term Roman-like was adopted to describe the architecture of the Romanesque period because|
it relied on elements of Roman architecture such as ____.
|Which of the following encouraged the growth of towns and cities?||The pilgrimage routes|
|____ was the economic system that was gradually replaced by the growth of towns and cities|
during the Romanesque period.
|One of the factors that contributed to the enormous surge in church building during the|
Romanesque period was the ____.
|thanksgiving experienced at the peaceful conclusion of the first millennium|
|Pilgrims often journeyed to churches to view ____, which were the material remains of holy figures.||relics|
|The primary motivation for undertaking a pilgrimage, which was extremely dangerous and could|
often last a year, was ____.
|to seek salvation or a cure|
|9. ____ is the theft of relics for holy purposes.||Furta sacra|
|Pilgrims believed that relics could ____.||heal body and soul|
|The most venerated pilgrimage shrine in the West, outside Rome or Jerusalem, was the ____.||tomb of Saint James at Santiago de Compostela|
|Saint Faith at Conques, Saint James at Santiago de Compostela, and Saint-Sernin at Toulouse|
are all examples of ____ churches.
|Saint-Sernin at Toulouse has been called a “pilgrimage type” church. Which of the following|
accounts for this designation?
|It had radiating chapels attached to the transept and ambulatory.|
|The purpose of tribunes such as those found at Saint James at Santiago de Compostela and|
Saint-Sernin in Toulouse was ____.
|to house the overflow crowds and to buttress the weight of the vaults|
|The nave of pilgrimage churches, such as Saint-Sernin at Toulouse and Saint James, were|
covered by a ____.
|cut-stone barrel vault|
|At Saint-Sernin, the ____ served as the module for the proportions of the entire church.||crossing square|
|Compound piers are ____.||piers with attached columns or pilasters|
|In the Romanesque period, church interiors became impressive acoustical settings for church|
services. Which of the following architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics?
|The continuous barrel-vaulted naves|
|The revival of monumental sculpture in the Romanesque period was partially influenced by ____.||the survival of ancient Roman ruins|
|The monks of the ____ order were among the primary patrons of Romanesque sculpture||Cluniac|
|____ possesses the most extensive preserved ensemble of early Romanesque sculpture.||Saint-Pierre, Moissac|
|The _____ is the covered courtyard in a monastery that expressed the seclusion of the spiritual life and offered a foretaste of paradise||cloister|
|The Cistercian monk who criticized the rich outfitting of non-Cistercian churches and sculptural|
adornments of monastic cloisters was ____.
|Bernard of Clairvaux|
|In his writings, Bernard of Clairvaux criticized the profusion of sculptural decoration in|
Romanesque cloisters because it ____.
|distracted the viewer from reading and prayer.|
|One of the most obvious differences between Cistercian churches such as Notre-Dame at|
Fontenay and other Romanesque churches is the absence of ____.
|The focus of the sculptural program of the abbey church of Saint Pierre at Moissac is the ____.||second coming|
|The ____ is the semi-circular area above the lintel of a Romanesque portal.||tympanum|
|During the Romanesque period, the vision of Christ’s second coming was often depicted on which|
of the following?
|On the right face of the Moissac trumeau is a prophet displaying his scroll containing his prophetic|
vision. He is placed immediately below the depiction of Christ, the judge. This is another instance of
the pairing of the Old and New Testament themes. This iconographic tradition was established during
which of the following periods?
|____ is the church most closely associated with the crusades.||La Madeleine, Vézelay|
|The tympanum of the Romanesque portal of La Madeleine at Vézelay depicts ____.||Pentecost|
|The ____ were mass armed pilgrimages whose purpose was to take control of Christian|
monuments in the Holy Land.
|Reflecting Christ’s mission to the apostles, depicted in the lintel and tympanum compartments at|
Vézelay are ____.
|images of the world’s heathens|
|The mission of the ____, the earliest crusading knights, was to protect Christians visiting Christian|
shrines in the Holy Land.
|Scholars believe that the ____ manuscript was produced in the scriptorium at Moissac.||Codex Colbertinus|
|The interwining forms on the initial L and saint matthew of the codex Colbertinus attest to the long life of the _______ from the hiberno- saxon period||animal interlace style|
|In contrast to the Cluiacs, the ____ order eventually prohibited full-page illustrations in|
|The depiction of the battle between the knight and the dragons from the Moralia in Job was|
viewed by the clergy as ____.
|an allegory of the struggle of monks against the devil for the salvation of souls|
|The use of ornamented initials such as the Initial R in the Moralia in Job can be traced back to the|
|____, in northern Spain, boasts more Romanesque murals than anywhere else in Europe||Catalonia|
|Similar to the subject matter of Romanesque portals, the ____ fresco from Santa María de Mur|
represents Christ surrounded by the four evangelists.
|Christ in Majesty|
|The “throne of wisdom,” sedes sapientiae, is the western European freestanding version of which|
of the following?
|Which church was the burial place of the Holy Roman emperors until the 12th century?||Speyer Cathedral|
|The one important requirement often missing from these church interiors is light. Which of the|
following did not allow for interior lighting?
|Barrel-vaults exerted great outward thrust making a clerestory difficult to construct.|
|How did 11th-century Romanesque masons construct monumental groin vaults?||By using ashlar blocks joined by mortar|
|Of the following characteristics, which is not relevant to Italian church architecture?||Verticality|
|In ____, buildings were designed structurally less experimentally than in northern Europe.||Italy|
|It is said this structure’s design is simple and serenely classical. It is a descendant of the|
Pantheon, the imperial mausoleum, such as Diocletian’s, and the early Christian Saint Costanza.
Which of the following is being described?
|San Giovanni Baptistery, Florence|
|The facade of ____ is rooted in the tradition of Carolingian and Ottonian westworks||Saint-Étienne, Caen|
|Which of these architectural elements was used for the exterior supports on Romanesque|
|The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following?||Groin vault|
|The Norman defeat of the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 united all of England|
and most of France under one rule. The battle leading to this momentous occasion was the topic for
the Bayeux Tapestry. Who commissioned this work?
|The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim?||It depicted an actual event in full detail shortly after it occurred.|
|The Bayeux Tapestry is the conqueror’s version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle|
sequences as well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all
Romanesque artworks. Which of the following supports this contention?
|It has often been likened to the panels from the Arch of Titus.|