Contemporary Taxonomists Classify African Apes And Humans Together As

Anthropology Exam Study Guide

According to the text, culture consists ofsets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society, together with the material artifacts and structures that human beings create and use
A contemporary cultural anthropologist is likely to studyany of the above
Biological anthropologists are interested inhuman beings as biological organisms
An extended period of close involvement by anthropologists with the people whose life is of interest to them is calledfieldwork
Holism in anthropology is defined in the text asintegrating what is known about human beings and their activities at an inclusive level
Organisms that seems to have developed similar adaptations at a similar level of complexity in similar environments are classified as being in the same evolutionarygrade
Tarsiers are included with anthropoids in the primate suborder Haplorhini becauseboth b and c
During the Miocene epoch, evolution of ________ took offhominoids
Stresirrhini includelemurs and lorises
Which of the following primate groups apparently uses sexual behavior to manipulate relationships rather than to increase reproductive rates?bonobos
Primates that are active at night are callednocturnal
Based on current ethnoprimatological research, which of the following statements is correct?all of the above
The form of vision is binocular animals which produces depth perception is know asstereoscopic vision
Which of the following is NOT an anthropoid?non of the above; all are anthropoids
The sizes, shapes, and number of an animal’s teeth and referred to as the animal’sdentition
Primates that walk on two feet are no calledhominins
The famous “Lucy” fossil was found inEthiopia
Genetic information from ancient DNA indicates thatall of the above
Taphonomists would probably conclude that hominids had scavenged meat from an animal carcass they did not kill if fossil animal bonesshowed stone-tool cut marks on top of animal tooth marks
According to the text, endurance running may have been advantageous for hominids because it madepersistence hunting of medium- to large-sized mammals more successful
Some anthropologists have claimed that meat eating was the crucial behavioral change leading to the appearance of early Homo. This story of human origins is calledman the hunter scenario
Australopths with rugged jaws, flat races, and enormous molars are known asrobust australopithecines
Anatomically modern human beings are about how many years old?200,000 years
Organisms that eat a wide range of plant and anima floods are calledomnivorous
Recent advances in the sequencing of ancient DNA seems to indicate thatabout 1% to 4% of modern non-Africans contain Neanderthal DNA sequences
The Laetoli footprintswere probably made by Homo habilis (incorrect)
Some anthropologists have claimed that meat eating was the crucial behavioral change leading to the appearance of early Homo. This story of human origins is called thewoman the gatherer scenario (incorrect)
The bones of the head, excluding the jaw, are referred to as thecranium
The first hominoids appeared inAfrica
The sizes, shapes, and number of an animal’s teeth are referred to as the animal’sdentition
Organisms that seem to have developed similar adaptions at a similar level of complexity in similar environments re classified as being in the same evolutionarygrade
Paleoanthropologist’s suspect that perhaps more than one species belonging to the genus Homo may have coexisted in eastern Africa in the early Pleistocene becausethe fossils assigned to Homo habilis show too much internal variation to all belong to the same species
The bones of an animal’s body, not including its head, are called itspost cranial skeleton
A person who is homozygous for the X chromosome isfemale
Darwin’s theory that the “fitter” survive and reproduce more offspring, which then inherit the traits that made their parents “fitter”, is calledsurvival of the fittest
Which of the following is NOT an ancestral characteristic of primates?stereoscopic vision
Primates that walk on two feet are now calledapes (incorrect)
A cultural anthropology of the human past focusing on material evidence of human modification of the physical environment is calledarchaeology
Random changes in gene frequencies from one generation to the next due to a sudden reduction in population size and resulting in the loss of particular alleles is know asgenetic drift
Natural selection acts onthe needs of a species (incorrect)
For modern biologists, a species is defined asthe organism that live in a specific niche (incorrect)
Organisms that eat a wide range of plant and animal foods are calledomnivorous
When variations in skin color of indigenous populations of the world are plotted on a mapboth a and b
Hominids dating from 500,000 to 200,000 years ago possessing morphological features found in both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens are considered which kind of Homo sapiens?archaic
The concept that defines a specifies as a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature is thebiological species concept
The slow, gradual transformation of a single species over time is calledanagenesis
The form of vision in binocular animals which produces depth perception is known asstereoscopic vision
Denial of the existence of biological raceall of the above
According to Ian Tattersall, which of the following statements about Homo heidelbergensis is correct?all of the above
Recent work by taphonomists on sites and remains associated with Homo erectus has led them to questionall of the above
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The first hominin species to leave Africa wasHomo erectus
In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of segregation holds thatan individual receives one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes from each parent
According to the text, if humanity cannot be divided into a series of genetically distinct units, thenthe concept of race is biologically meaningless
The bones of the fingers and toes of Australopithecus afarensis are slightly curved, and the toes are much longer than the toes of modern human beings.both b and c
Recent advances in the sequencing of ancient DNA seem to indicate thatabout 1% to 4% of the genomes of modern non-Africans contain Neanderthal DNA sequences
A contemporary biological anthropologists is likely to studyany of the above
It is now generally accepted that the earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans comes fromEthiopia
The observable, measurable outward characteristics of an organism are called thephenotype
Much recent research has demonstrated that IQ scores areshaped by a range of environmental factors
Wings on birds and bats are an example ofhomology (incorrect)
According to Linda Fedigan, the contributors to the volume Man the Hunterworked with a model of human origins that was based on traditional role expectations for Western men and women
Many leading taxonomists have grouped chimpanzees and humans into the same family, Hominidae, becauseboth a and b (incorrect)
In Mendelian genetics, those genetics characteristics that are expressed in an organism are said to begenetic (incorrect)
The view that biological organisms are distinct and unchanging over time is:Essentialism
Which of the following is NOT an element of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?crossing over
Mendelian inheritance, in which an individual gets one gene for each trait from each parent is the principle ofgenetics
Contemporary taxonomists classify African apes and humans together ashominids
Which of the following is an example of genetic drift?both a and b
As cited in the text, Zeder and Smith argue that peopleboth a and c
Archaeologists are coming to agree that domestication was everywhere invented bycomplex foragers living in areas of relatively abundant resources
A modern multiple-strand theory of domestication will included the local effects ofall of the above
According to Bruce Smith, the ancestors of domesticated seed plants wereweedy generalists that thrived in disturbed environments
Which of the following is a consequence of domestication?all of the above
According to the text, how do sedentism and domestication represent a change in worldview?land is transformed into owned territories
Sociocultural features that have been suggested as leading to the rise of social complexity includeineffective patterns of conflict resolution within the original social organization
David Rindos argued that plant domestication came about becausethere were natural selection effects on the plants based on the unconscious activities of people in eating and propagating them
The term “transegalitarian society” isall of the above
A conflict among scholars concerning domestication centers onwhether people were aware of what they were doing in intervening in the gene pool of wild plants
When anthropologists distinguished between “culture” and “cultures” they were distinguishing between _______ and ________a defining attribute of human beings/ways of life of specific groups of people
Genocide isthe attempt to exterminate an entire people
Sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society, together with the material artifacts and structures humans create and use, is an anthropological definition ofculture
Cultural Relativismrequires us to take many things into account before we form opinions about other cultural practices
The opinion that one’s own way of life is natural of correct and the only true way of being fully human is calledethnocentrism
The process by which human beings living with one another must learn to come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling considered appropriate in their respective cultures isenculturation
African women who are trying to eliminate email genital cutting from their own societies are often not happy when American outsiders like Mary Daly and Alice Walker denounce the practice as a human rights abuse. Why?all of the above
The anthropological definition of cultural relativism requires that we make an effort to _______ the practices of other culturesunderstand
Something that stands for something else is asymbol
Culture isall of the above
Members of a speech communitydo not all posses identical knowledge about the language they share
The transfer of information from one person to another is humancommunication
David is a college student who knows the different linguistic habits appropriate to his mother and stepfather’s home, his father’s home, his university residence hall, his anthropology class, his job at an elegant restaurant, and his religious tradition. The term used in the text to describe his complex linguistic knowledge isheteroglossia
As reported in the text, Robbins Burling argues that primate call systemare organized in a way so different from human symbolic language that it is difficult to imagine a sequence that could convert a call system to language
The scientific study of language is known aslinguistics
Linguistic determinism holds thatthe grammars of people’s native languages determine how they think about the world
The ability of native speakers of a language to distinguish correctly between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences is calledcommunicated competence (incorrect)
In order to understand the meaning of the sentence “Who’s standing by that building,” we need to know thelinguistic context (incorrect)
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf believed thatlanguage determines thought
Linguistic messages can be false, and they can be meaningless in the logician’s sense. This highlights the linguistic design feature ofprevarication
“Art by intention” includesobjects that are made to be art
Aristis in non-Western societiesproduce work that is more interesting to Western collectors than it is to the people in their own societies (incorrect)
For many anthropologists, using the term “supernatural” in a definition of religion isnecessary in order to capture the distinction between the world human beings can see and the one they cannot (incorrect)
The ambiguous transitional state in a rite of passage in which the person(s) undergoing the ritual is outside his or her ordinary social positions is calledliminality
The synthesis of old religious practices with new religious practices introduced from outside is calledsyncretism
Compared with wild wheat, domesticated wheatall of the above
A repetitive social practice compose of a sequence of cultural recognizable symbolic activities in the form of a dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects, set off from the routines of everyday life and closely connected with a specific set of ideas, is know asritual
A society in which one person and his or her relatives have privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige is called achiefdom
Clifford Geert, as quotes in the text, observes that human beings raised in isolation would bemental basket cases
In a rank society, a chief is given greaterprestige than other people but not greater power or wealth
In doing the “waggle dance”, bees can communicate the distance, direction, and nature of a food source, as well as tell stories about their experience to other beestrue (incorrect)
The belief that there is supernatural power embedded in material objects, places, people, or animals is knows as:Animism
There is nothing inherent in the nature of large quadruped well suited for long-distance running that requires us to call this creature a “horse.” This illustrates the linguistic design feature ofsemanticity
The performance of evil by human beings believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it is self-aware is calledwitchcraft
When archaeologists excavate a site, they alwaysexcavate as much as they can of a site to try to record as much of the context of the artifacts as possible (incorrect)
Artists in non-Western societieswork with symbols that are of central importance to their societies
Language, like culture, isall of the above
A set of beliefs and practices designed to control the visible of invisible world or specific purposes is calledmagic
A ritual that serves the movement and transformation of an individual from on social position to another is calleda rite of passage
According to William Labov’s work in the 1960s, African American children living in urban areas did not perform well linguistically in the classroom because theyfelt threatened in the classroom context
Human interference with the reproduction of another species, with the result that specific plants and animals become more useful to people and dependent on them, is calleddomestication
In 2001, the Taliban in Afghanistan destroyedgiant statues of the Buddha
A small, egalitarian social grouping whose members neither farm nor herd but depend on wild food resources is called aband
The archaeological approach that takes as its objective studying the way present-day societies use artifacts and structures to illuminate remains they have found is calledethnoarchaeology
Which of the following statements about language endangerment do linguistic anthropologists considers correct?all of the above
Diseases such as influenza, measles, and tuberculosis that transfer from animals to humans are referred to as:zoonotic diseases
Objects that have been deliberately and intelligently shaped by human or near-human activity are calledartifacts
A movement whose members expect a messiah or prophet who will bring back a lot golden age of peace, prosperity, and harmony is callednativism
Lewis Winford declared that archaeology should be science or it should be nothing at allFalse (Incorrect)
Objects buried with a corpse are known asgrave goods
David is a college student who knows the different linguistic habits appropriate to his mother and stepfather’s home, his father’s home, his university residence hall, his anthropology class, his job at an elegant restaurant and his religious tradition. The term used in the text to describe his complex linguistic knowledge isheteroglossia
To the Azande, witches areall of the above
Social relations in which no great differences in wealth, power, or prestige dived members from one another are calledegalitarian social relations
The anthropological definition of cultural relativism requires that we make an effort to ______ the practices of other cultures.understand
A supporter of unlined evolutionary theory who had widespread influence wasLewis Henry Morgan
The design feature of language called “openness” or “productive” refers to theability to create new linguistic messages freely and easily
For the Bakweri, who were zombies?banana farmers (incorrect)
A leading thinker on Old World History who has heavily influenced by Marxist ideals, V. Gordon Childe moved beyond simply describing cultural sequences by seeking to understandall of the above
Which of the following does NOT reflect the anthropological understanding of ritual?rituals are exclusively religious in nature
The characteristic form of social organization among foragers is theband
A form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige is calledsocial stratification
In some religious systems, certain objects or people may not be touched or else the cosmic power, such as Polynesian Mana, in them may drain away. This feature is captured in the minimal category of religion calledtaboo
Who said “human behavior is symbolic behavior, if it is not symbolic, it is not human”?Leslie White
The concept that the same natural processes that affect the world today worked the same way in the past is known as:uniformitarianism
The term “transegalitatian society” isa substitute for “political correctness” (incorrect)
According to anthropologist Richard Lee, Dobe Ju/’huansi foragers devote about _________ hours per week obtaining food14
Which of the following is an example of redistribution?potlatch (incorrect)
The using up of material goods necessary for human physical survival is calledconsumption
The mode of exchange that requires some form of centralized social organization to receive economic contributions from all members of the group and to allocate them in such a way as to provide for every member of the group is calledredistribution
An economic system dominated by the supply-demand-price mechanism called the “market” iscapitalism
Anthropologists consider a reciprocal situation in which parties to the exchange hope to get something for nothing to benegative reciprocity
Carole Counihan, cited in the text, notes that her younger female interviewees wereexpected to work for wages but also maintain the household, including doing the cooking
Among the Trobriand Islanders, women’s wealthis exchanged for yams
A ____________ is a historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is organized to extract energy from the environment by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledgemode of production
A reciprocal situation in which a return of equal value is expected within a specific time limit demonstrates what anthropologists considerbalanced reciprocity
The exchange of goods and services of equal value is calledreciprocity
According to Gramsci, power based on physical force is calleddomination
During the last half of the twentieth century, the countries of ________ were the target of large waves of immigration from all over the worldEurope
According to Gramsci, rulers who provide some genuine benefits to their subjects, spread an ideology that justifies their rule, and nevertheless succeed in protecting their privileges are exercisinghegemony
The German approach to multiculturalism is characterized by the promise to immigrants ofwork and legal protection but not citizenship
According to John Bowen, as discussed in the text, how are French legal scholars working to craft solutions to the challenges Muslim marriage practices present to French law?they are making “practical exceptions” to the concept of public order
In traditional Western thought, the prototype of power in human social relations is based onphysical coercion
According to the text, a central theme in multicultural debates within Europe iscoming to terms with increasing numbers of Muslims living in countries where Christianity has historically been dominant
The French approach to multiculturalism is characterized by the promise to immigrants ofall the rights and privileges of native-born citizens as long as they adopt French culture and language
The actions taken by many contemporary nation-states to identify the level of terrorist threats, take action to stop them, and institute policies to minimize damage and disruption in the event of a terrorist attack would be considered examples ofgovernmentality
According to James Scott, foot-dragging, desertion, pilfering, slander, arson, and sabotage are examples ofeveryday forms of peasant resistance
Which of the following terms do anthropologists use to refer to the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a particular society?gender
Marriage within the boundaries of a defined social group is calledendogamy
For woman marriage to be possible, a society must recognize a distinction betweenpater and genitor
Marriage outside the boundaries of a defined social group is calledexogamy
A family created when previously divorced or widowed people marry, bringing with them children from their previous families, isa blended family
A form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses is calledpolygamy
A husband, a wife, and their children form aconjugal family
Which of the following people belong to the same matrilineage?a woman, her mother, her son
For anthropologists, a nuclear family is made up ofa married couple and their children
A descent group formed by members who believe they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor is aclan
Roger Lancaster points out that in Nicaragua the system of color termspresupposes white superiority and black inferiority
A sense of identification with and loyalty to a nation-state is generally referred to asnationality
A system of social identities negotiated situationally along a continuum between white and black is calledcolorism
An ideal political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide is known as anation-state
In the Hindu ranking of jatis, in terms of purity and pollution, which of the following activities is the least polluting?a vegetarian diet
Hierarchically arranged social groups defined on economic grounds are calledclasses
The social category of race isa relatively recent invention
Deliberate representations of particular identities as if they were a result of biology or nature, rather than history or culture, thus making them appear eternal and unchanging, are known asnaturalizing discourses
A key element recognized by all anthropologists who use the concept of caste is that caste groups areendogamous
A group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even physical substance constitute anation
As anthropologists have begun to study “the culture of human rights” they have come to see the central role played bylaw
To argue that all peoples have a human right to maintain their own distinct culture is to assume thatboth a and b
The reshaping of local conditions by powerful worldwide forces on an ever-intensifying scale is the concept ofglobalization
If people are believed to have no choice but to follow the rules of the culture into which they were born, thenboth a and b
In order to fit the way human rights laws are written, indigenous people often have toportray their cultures in ways that are different from their own everyday understandings
A characteristic of Western modernity has beenmassive global displacements of people
A group made up of citizens of a country who continue to live in their homeland plus the people who have emigrated from the country and their descendants, regardless of their current citizenship, make up atransborder citizenry
_______ is being at ease in more than one cultural setting.cosmopolitanism
A nation-state in which the relationships between citizens and the state extend to wherever citizens reside is atransnational nation-state
For some people, blue jeans, McDonald’s hamburgers, rock and roll, and Coca-Cola are seen as destroying local practices. They call this processcultural imperialism
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The first hominin species to leave Africa wasHomo erectus
In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of segregation holds thatan individual receives one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes from each parent
According to the text, if humanity cannot be divided into a series of genetically distinct units, then
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The first hominin species to leave Africa wasHomo erectus
In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of segregation holds thatan individual receives one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes from each parent
According to the text, if humanity cannot be divided into a series of genetically distinct units, then
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The first hominin species to leave Africa wasHomo erectus
In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of segregation holds thatan individual receives one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes from each parent
According to the text, if humanity cannot be divided into a series of genetically distinct units, then
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The first hominin species to leave Africa wasHomo erectus
In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of segregation holds thatan individual receives one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes from each parent
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The first hominin species to leave Africa wasHomo erectus
In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of segregation holds that
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy
A person who is heterozygous for the X and Y chromosomes ismale
The circumstance in which two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment is known ashomoplasy