Dependency Ratio Ap Human Geography

AP Human Geography – Chapter 2: Population Geography

age-sex distributiona model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
Arithmetic Densitythe number of people living in a given unit or area
baby booma cohort of individuals born in the US between 1946-1964, post-World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. these conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility
baby bustperiod of time during the 1960s and 70s when fertility rates in the US dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. as such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast to the baby boom.
carrying capacitythe maximum number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support
Census Tractsmall country subdivisions, usually containing between 2500-8000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions
chain migrationthe migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community
Child Mortality Ratenumber of deaths/1000 children within the first five years of life
cohorta population group unified by a specific common characteristic (ex: age) and subsequently treated as a statistical unit
Cotton Beltthe term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region. now known as the New South/Sun Belt because people have migrated here from older cities in the industrial north for better climate and new job opportunities
crude birth ratethe number of live births per year/1000 people
crude death ratethe number of deaths per year/1000 people
demographic accounting sequencean equation that summarizes the amount of growth/decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration
demographic transition modela sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time
demographythe study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics
dependency ratiothe ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. n:100 (n=number of dependents)
doubling timetime period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely
emigrationthe process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person’s country of origin
exponential growthgrowth of a fixed percentage every year (compounded when applied to an ever-growing population)
forced migrationexactly what it says: migration in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will (=involuntary migration)
Generation Xa term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the US between the years 1965-1980. this generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years
geodemographya division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population (=population geography)
immigrationthe process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there
infant mortality ratethe percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country
internal migrationthe permanent or semi-permanent movement of individuals within a particular country
intervening obstaclesany forces/factors that may limit human migration
life expectancythe average age individuals are expected to live, varying across space and between genders/race
Thomas Malthusauthor of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically; therefore, population growth would eventually outpace food production
maternal mortality ratenumber of deaths/1000 women giving birth
migrationa long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another
natural increase ratethe difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country
Neo-Malthusianadvocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current/future populations
overpopulationa value judgment based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area’s current population
physiologic densitya ratio of human population to the area of cropland, used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agriculture
population densitya measurement of the number of persons per unit land area
population pyramida model used in population geography to show the age/sex distribution of a particular population
pull factors and push factorspull factors draw migrants, while push factors provide reasons for migrants to leave
refugeespeople who leave their home because they are forced out, but NOT because they are being officially relocated or enslaved
Rust Beltthe northern industrial states of the US, including Ohio/Michigan/Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the US and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate
Sun BeltUS region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown dramatically since World War II
total fertility ratethe average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years
voluntary migrationmovement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to relocate (<-> forced migration)
zero population growthproposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs