“Foodways” Describes A Perspective That Approaches Food As

Anthropology 2010 ex 2

Cultural anthropologists do research bybuilding trusting relationships with people over a long period of time
Which of the following is the term defining the method of the discipline of cultural anthropology?fieldwork
fieldwork involvesall of the above
The people anthropologists gather data from are calledinformants
The comparative methoduses data from many different societies
Multisited ethnography is an example of which method?comparative method
Which method is important for understanding past social insitutions and how they change?life histories
Research committed to making social change and improving the lives of marginalized people isaction anthropology
An important ethical concern for anthropologists is toprotect their informants
A rapid appraisal is when anthropologists drop into a community into a community for just a few weeks to collect data. Bruce Knauft did this during his ____ trip to Gebusi.Third
In order to study culture one must travel to distant, far off placesFalse
Anthropologists of the 1880s are referred to as “armchair anthropologists” because they never traveled abroad and they gather data from other peoples reportsTrue
Anthropologists do no consider unstructured, casual conversations datafalse
In which of the following locations would you find an anthropologist doing fieldwork?all of the above
a word that best describes participant observation isunstructured
This type of interaction may include playing basketball, cooking, dining, or having coffee with informantsparticipant observation
A central technique involved in an informal, open-ended interview is toallow questions to emerge in the course of the interview
Using life history interviews, researchers are able tounderstand how a person’s age affects his or her role in the community
An important element required for successful “rapid appraisal” data collection isgood general knowledge of the area/topic being studied
What is the type of information written in field notesall of the above
When anthropologists go into the fieldall of the above
Anthropologists believe that the “native point of view” is better than their ownfalse
Anthropology is different from journalism because journalists’ data are protected by lawTrue
If you wanted to have consistent responses, what kind of interview would you use?survey
If you studied sex workers in your city as Phillippe Bourgois studied crack dealers in New York City, you might find thatmaintaining confidentiality is an ongoing challenge
An anthropologist who practices participatory-action research would most likely use this method ina study of a low-income neighborhood where a toxic waste dump is located
Which project would be best suited to parachute ethnography?a study of community response to a disaster
Which of the following are areas of social activity that globalization affects?all of the above
Rapid increases in the scale and amount of communicationmean that people in remote places can be in contact with people all over the world
Financial globalization has allowed forcorporations to move factories from one country to another
Eric Wolf encouraged anthropologists to consider what in their field studies?history
The major goal of “development” isall of the above
Development anthropologists often think of themselves asadvocates of poor and marginalized people
James Ferguson, who is an anthropologist with experience in development, argues that development existsto expand state power
The theory that explains why cultural differences have not disappeared because cultural consciousness is increasingly bringing people together around cultural similarities is calledclash of civilizations theory
People participate in globalization byall of the above
____ are people who leave their homes to work for a time in other regions or countriesmigrants
World systems theory helped anthropologiseall of the above
A key feature of financial globalization isthe reduction or elimination of tariffs to promote trade
The research that anthropologist Karen Tranberg Hansen has done on secondhand clothing in Zambia is interesting becauseit highlights how people impose local meanings on objects
Promoters of globalization highlight which of the followingthe more open a country is to foreign trade, the better the economy will be by standard measures
The recent rise of autonomy movements among Hawaiian separatists and Zapatistas in Mexico are examples oflocalization
The most important goal of the Congolese sapeur is toaccumulate prestige
A central feature of cultural convergence theories is thatthey explain the apparent decline of cultural diversity
Which of the following best describe the methodology of multisited ethnographycomparative
Which of the following is NOT true about hybridization theoriesit explains why conflict is growing in the world
A world systems theory is important for all of the following reasons exceptit lends itself readily to ethnographic methodology
A multisited ethnographer studying Mexican migrants in the United States would most likely to conduct fieldworkall of the above
If a development anthropologist were to get involved in a project in your city that is revitalizing a poor neighborhood, she or he would probably emphasizethe overarching importance of listening to the priorities of the neighbors
A believer in cultural imperialism would explain that people who watch American TV in remote places like a Walpiri camp in the Austrailian outback arebeing subjected to alien culture influences
World systems theory would be most suited to which of the following research projects?a historical study of indigenous resistance to colonialism
The processes of capital accumulation and the expansion of European colonialism disrupted many socitiesTrue
People in the periphery responded passively to capitalist expansionFalse
Localization is the flip side of globalizationTrue
The authors think that cultural diversity persists in the world because cultures have been isolated from each other for so long but that diversity is bound to disappear as cultures intermingle moreFalse
A key marker of development anthropology’s success is when local perspectives and voices are paid attention to in development projectsTrue
Globalization and localization are complementary dynamics.True
Anthropologist study food holistically, which means that they focus onall of the above
The human diet isomnivorous
A key component of nutritional anthropology as defined by Audrey Richards was attention tothe interrelationship between biology, health, ecology, political-economic, and cultural concerns
Anthropologist Sidney Mintz observes that most people around the world usuallyeat a common patterned diet of core-legume-fringe foods
Why is meat eating important for human evolutionit provides high-quality protein for human brain development
Eating practices markall of the above
Foodways are dynamic becauseall of the above
Which mode of subsistence includes the search for edible things?foraging
Food security refers toaccess to sufficient nutritious food to be healthy and active
“foodways” describes a perspective that approaches food asall of the above
Intensification, a process that increases yields, includesall of the above
Why do foragers turn to agriculture?increased population density causes too much competition for resources
It is unusual for human adults to be able to digest milkTrue
There are more undernourished people than obese and overweight people in the worldFalse
In many parts of the world food is a very important way of communicating social identityTrue
The principles of agroecology are at the heart of industrial agricultureFalse
What pivotal evolutionary shift happened around 1.8 to 2 million years ago that is closely related to human foodways?meat consumption increased
There has been a reduction of maize varieties in Mexico. What is the primary reason for it?Mexican agricultural policies favored cheap imports from the US
Anthropologists are interested in the nutrition transition becauseit explains widespread changes in bodily form, eating patterns, and everyday life in urban settings
Which of the following is NOT true of how food preferences relate to gender?men always love meat, not matter which culture they are from
Why was symbolic anthropologist Mary Douglas so interested in Jewish dietary laws?because they were a way to communicate symbolic piety
One of anthropology’s insights about foraging mode of subsistence is thatforaging people have a cultural view of their environment as giving
For anthropologists, what is important about the existence of differences between populations in the ability to digest milk?all of the above
Long term damage to soil quality is typical ofintensification
A nutritional anthropologist who studies the nutrition transition would probably focus on all of the following exceptthe labor conditions of migrant workers
A foodways perspective on human evolution would emphasizethe changes in human dietary physiology are intertwined with how people grow, share, and eat food
A cultural relativist would most likely to emphasize that pastoralisthave developed effective social institutions and knowledge that ensure long-term sustainability of the landscape
Which of the following would be UNLIKELY as a explanation given by a cultural anthropologist for the existence of food insecurity among the poor?its related to the ignorance of the poor to effectively feed themselves
What do environmental anthropologist study?all of the above
According to Itzaj beliefshumans and nature exist in the same realm
What relationship between nature and human does Western thought emphasize?oppositional
The concept that people have learned images, knowledge, and concepts of the physical landscape that affect how they will actually interact with it is calledcultural landscape
Traditional ecological knowledge is not well known in the West becauseall of the above
Which part of the Zapotec agricultural system does not correspond well to Western ecological understandings?the idea that maize has a soul
Why do environmental anthropologists study formal nature protection?it often generates social conflicts
The perception that the North American continent was an unpeopled wilderness during the early period of European settlement when British settlers arrived is an example of anartifactual landscape
The Maasai people of Kenya and Tanzania practicetranshumant pastoralism
What is “fortress conservation”an approach to conservation that assumes that people are threatening to nature
A social movement that addresses the linkages between racial discrimination and injustice, social equity, and environmental equality isenvironmental justice
Analyses that focus on the linkages between political-economic power, social inequality, and ecological destruction are typical of which approachpolitical ecology
Contemporary ecological science supports the idea that human cultural behaviors are solely shaped by the environmentfalse
All knowledge systems about nature, including science, are culturally basedtrue
An ecological footprint is a measurement of the population an area can supportfalse
It has been proven that overpopulation will inevitably lead to global faminefalse
Famines are often caused by not environmental factors but social factors like inequalitytrue
One of the primary reasons indigenous leaders criticize the dominant models for administering protected environmental area isthey assume nature must be uninhabited by people
Sustainable development for indigenous people involves which of the following elements?all of the above
Which of the following is a key argument of ethnobiologist Brent Berlin, who compared human classification systems?all human classification systems are reflective of an underlying cognitive structure of the human brain that organizes information in systematic ways
The enclosure movement is important to understanding Western conservation approaches becauseall of the above
How did Americans aim to showcase their “civilization” after the civil war?establishing formally protected areas
Europeans colonial regimes commonly instituted controls on native peoples use of natural resouresto eliminate native competition against the european businesses exploiting raw materials in the colonies
Which of the following reasons explains why a collaborative approach to conversation can be so challengingscientist and conversationists are often skeptical of indigenous knowledge claims
Why is Fairhead and Leachs study about landscape change in Guinea importantit shows why forests can increase because of human population growth and cultivaltion
Which of the following methods allowed fairhead and leach to make their conclusions about landscape change in Guineaall of the above
Consumer capitalism contributes to increasing ecological footprints in industrialized nations becauseall of the above
Kenyas green belt movement is a good example ofenviromental justice
The ecological costs of producing beef in the United States are externalized on the landscape and water resourcestrue
An anthropologist who studies the cultural landscape of Zapotec farmers of southern Mexico would be primarily interested inthe meaning and images they have of nature that shape their farming practice
Political ecological perspectives are applicable to all of the following exceptthe relationship between high birth rates and overfishing
A key difference between anthropologists of development and development anthropologists isthe first are analysts of development; the second seek ways to influence it from within
A central feature of cultural convergence theories is thatthey explain the rise of cultural conflict in the world
One of the main reasons localization interests anthropologists is thatglobal integration creates opportunity for local cultures to express themselves
Development anthropologists often think of themselves asadvocates of poor and marginalized people
People in the periphery responded passively to capitalist expansion.False
Globalization and localization are complementary dynamics.True
A multisited ethnographer studying Mexican migrants in the United States would be most likely to conduct fieldworkall of the above
If a development anthropologist were to get involved in a project in your city that is revitalizing a poor neighborhood, she or he would probably emphasizethe overarching importance of listening to the priorities of the neighbors
Which of the following best describes the methodology of multisited ethnography?comparative
An anthropologist who promotes principles of agroecology would likely view horticulture asuseful to learn new principles about sustainable farming
The concept of “fortress conservation” would be applicable to all of the following situations exceptthe construction of ecotourist facilities to protect visitors from wandering lions in the Tanzanian savannas
The perception that the North American continent was an unpeopled wilderness during the early period of European settlement when British settlers arrived is an example of anartifactual landscape
“Mother nature” and “natural resources” are a good example ofmetaphors of human-nature interaction
Economists and economic anthropologists are not that different in the way they study how people get the things they need to survive.False
Which of the following is not true of economic anthropology?it assumes that free market capitalism will take over the world
Economic anthropologists studyall of the above
Why is Karl Polanyi’s distinction between formal and substantive economics important?it recognizes that economies involve both how people think and the actual transactions they engage in
The use of money is a human universal.False
Which of the following analyses of Christmas shopping would be least likely to come from a follower of cultural economics?people always make decision about what to buy on the basis of getting the lowest pric
The main reason men of the Malaysian Langkawi fishing community hand over their money to women is thatwomen are better at saving money than men
Gift exchanges are important because people everywhere invest symbolic meaning in the things they give, receive, and consume.True
The exchange of brass rods for the purchase of cattle or the payment of bride price is an example of the use oflimited-purpose money
A substantivist would be most likely to explain the Kula cycle asclosely tied to important social institutions, such as kin networks, trading ties, and political structure
When a parent pays for a child’s piano lessons, he or she is engaged ingeneralized reciprocity
The collection of goods in a community and the subsequent redivision of those goods among members of a society is calledredistribution
Which perspective incorporates symbols and morals into the understanding of a society’s economy?cultural economics
The main difference between economists and economic anthropologists is that economiststry to understand and predict economic patterns
Anthropologist Ashraf Ghani’s successes as a finance minister and presidential candidate in Afghanistan can be attributed to what?his attentiveness to local social norms and priorities
From an anthropological perspective, the main reason Wall Street banks are not the bastions of individualism and cold rationalism many think they are is thatpersonal relationships and local knowledge are critical to successful transactions
A Marxist approach to the cultural processes Karen Ho studied of Wall Street would be most focused onthe tendency to lay off employees on a regular basis as the bank suffers through financial crises caused by its own activities.
In Malaysia capitalist entrepreneurship isrespectful of Islamic and Malay obligations and values
A formalist anthropologist doing fieldwork in a supermarket would be most interested inhow shoppers decide which cat food to buy when they have fifteen varieties to choose from
Which of the following is a theoretical approach to how economics create value used in society?Marxism
Which economic theory studies how people make decisions to allocate resources like time, labor, and money in order to maximize their personal satisfaction?Neoclassical economics
According to Marshall Sahlins, when production is organized by families it isthe domestic mode of production
Gift exchange for Marcel Mauss is based inobligation
When you are consuming an object, the process of taking procession of it is calledappropriation
The central point of the concept of spheres of exchange is to make a distinction between general- and limited-purpose money.true
Although Russians do use money to buy things, they also rely on bartering when money is scarce.true
Which of the following explanations of political relationships among the !Kung would be least likely to come from a traditional political anthropologist?the !Kung have to navigate complex politics as ethnic minorities in states that don’t want them
A structural functionalist would be most likely to analyze violence asa means of creating and maintaining social order
For anthropologists, political power refers tohow power is used to attain goals for the good of the community
Big men can transfer their power and status through inheritance when they die.False
The exercise of political power requireslegitimacy
The !Kung people of southern Africa are an example what kind of society?acephalous
The importance of structural functionalism is that itshowed that non-Western societies have order without formal government
How do religious rituals function politically?all of the above
Which theory was used to explain how stateless societies maintained social order and equilibrium?structural-functionalism
Which government agency’s activities might you focus on if you wanted to understand structural power?the census office
A cultural constructionist who studies class would be interested inall of the above
Anthropologists are interested in a situation like the way the new heart drug BiDil was created and approved becauseit shows how cultural, political, and economic processes can work together to promote the idea that race is biologically based
An anthropologist who uses instrumentalist theories of ethnicity would explain the rise of “Latino” food distributor Goya asthe creation of a special market segment by a food company to enhance its profitability
An anthropologist who studies unearned privilege would be most interested in which of the following?situation in which an upper-class man gets accepted at an Ivy League university because his father and grandfather went there
Which of the following groups were considered nonwhite racial groups?all of the above
Racialization has identified different markers of racial identity in Latin America than in the United States.True
A key difference between caste and social class iscaste divides people in terms of moral purity, class in socioeconomic terms
Negative or unfair treatment of a person because of his or her group membership or identity isdiscrimination
Does race have biological consequences?yes, because of racism
What was so difficult about Japanese American anthropologist Tamie Tsuchiyama’s fieldwork in a World War II internment camp?he had to navigate complicated dynamics of prejudice and resentment
What was so difficult about Japanese American anthropologist Tamie Tsuchiyama’s fieldwork in a World War II internment camp?