Forward Capital Ap Human Geography

AP Human Geography: Political Geography

Antecedent BoundaryA boundary that was drawn across an area prior to the area becoming substantially-populated (e.g. border between Malaysia and Indonesia) Textbook
Buffer StateA neutral state between two warring states serving to prevent conflict. (e.g. Mongolia, between Russia and China) Google Definitions
City-StateA sovereign state comprising of a city and its immediate hinterland (e.g. Singapore) textbook
ColonialismAn attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economical, and cultural principles in another territory. textbook
ColonyA territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being independent (e.g. British Virgin Islands to Great Britain) textbook
Compact StateA state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly (e.g. Poland). Notes
Cultural Political BoundariesPolitical boundaries formed by differences in culture, such as religion or language. Quizlet
Domino TheoryThe theory that if one nation goes under Communist control, neighboring countries will do the same. Quizlet
Elongated StateA state with a long, narrow shape (e.g. Chile). Notes
EnclaveAn enclosed territory with a foreign territory around it (e.g. Lesotho) Notes
European Union (EU)A supranational organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members. Quizlet
ExclaveA part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by a foreign territory. Notes
Federal StateAn internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government (e.g. United States) Quizlet
Forward CapitalA symbolically relocated capital city, moved for economic or strategic reasons (e.g. Brasilia) Quizlet
Fragmented StateA state that includes several discontinuous territories (e.g. Indonesia). Notes
FrontierA zone separating two states in which neither of the states exercises political control (e.g. Antarctica) Quizlet
Geometric Political BoundariesBoundaries drawn with straight lines and arcs, as opposed to irregular lines and shapes that is unrelated to physical and/or cultural differences (e.g. the boundaries of most African countries). Quizlet
GerrymanderingThe redrawing of legislative boundaries entirely for electoral purposes, thereby benefiting the party in power. Notes
Heartland TheoryA theory that suggests that whoever owns Eastern Europe and Western Asia has the political power and capital to rule the world. Notes
ImperialismThe control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Textbook
Landlocked StateA state without access to the sea (e.g. Bolivia) Quizlet
MicrostateA state that encompasses a very small area (e.g. Vatican City) Quizlet
Multinational StateA state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities (e.g. United Kingdom) Notes
NationA group of people with common cultural characteristics and identify themselves as a cohesive group (e.g. Kurds) Quizlet
Nation-StateA state whose territory corresponds to that which is occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality (e.g. Japan) Notes
Perforated StateA state that completely surrounds another one (e.g. Italy) Notes
Physical Political BoundaryA state’s border that corresponds to a natural, real-life boundary. It can include mountains, deserts or water. (e.g. Rio Grande border between Mexico and the U.S.) Quizlet
Prorupted StateAn adhesive compact state with a large expansion (e.g. Thailand) Notes
Relic BoundaryA boundary no longer observed but that still affects the present-day area (e.g. border between West and East Germany in Berlin) Quizlet
Rimland TheoryA political theory that holds that control of Eurasia and Africa is achieved via control of the countries bordering the Soviet Union. Notes
Satellite StateA state that is formally independent but heavily influenced by another state (e.g. Bulgaria during the Soviet Union) Google Definitions
Self-DeterminationThe concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves. Textbook
Settlement EmpireAn empire intended for longer residence, rather than used for immediate return with resources
Shatterbelt RegionsAreas that are constantly breaking up and/or fragmenting (e.g. Southeast Asia) Teacher Web
SovereigntyThe ability of a state to govern its territory from control of its internal affairs by other states. Quizlet
StateAn area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs (e.g. France) Quizlet
Subsequent BoundariesDrawn boundaries made with regard to ethnic differences (e.g. border between China and Vietnam) PPT
Superimposed BoundariesA boundary made through colonization without regard to prior ethnic/cultural patterns (e.g. borders of most African countries) PPT
SupranationalismThe term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives. Notes
Unitary StateAn internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials. Google Definitions
AnnexationIncorporation of a territory into another geo-political entity. Quizlet
BalkanizationProcess by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities. Quizlet
NationalismA feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one’s country. Quizlet
Definitional Boundary DisputesA focus on the legal language of the treaty for the boundary. Quizlet
Locational Boundary DisputesThe definition of the boundary is not in dispute, but the interpretation is. Quizlet
Operational Boundary DisputesA dispute of how a border should function. Quizlet
Allocational Boundary DisputesThat occurs over a resource on a boundary between two countries. Quizlet
Consequent BordersDrawn to accommodate existing religious, economic, or ethnic differences. PPT
Boundary processThe process of creating boundaries. Quizlet
Boundary DeliminationPhase in which a boundaries’ definition is drawn onto a map. Quizlet
Boundary DemarcationPhase in which a boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall, or other means. Quizlet.
Boundary DefintionPhase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated. Quizlet
Centrifugal ForcesDecisive forces that destabilize, divide, and weaken states. Notes
Centripetal ForcesPromote unity and stability, binding people together in the state. Notes
DevolutionThe process whereby regions within a state demand and possibly gain political strength and the country breaks into smaller states. Textbook
ReapportionmentThe process of dividing the number of state representatives and senators among the state’s population in order to assure as close as possible districts of equal size. History Channel
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)Economic rights to explore and exploit natural resources in water, sea bed, and subsoil below. Notes
Ethnic CleansingA process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a lesser powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region. Textbook
GeopoliticsPolitics, especially international relations as influenced by geographical factors. Google Definitions
Stateless NationsUsed of ethnic groups which are not the majority population in any nation state and for it is implied they should have such a state. Google Definitions
Conference of Berlin (1884)Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set boundaries for each country’s colony. Quizlet
Core Periphery ModelA model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominate core regions, and more marginal or dependent semiperipherial and peripheral regions. Quizlet
Raison d-etreA basic, essential purpose; a reason to exist. Quizlet.
Iron CurtainBarrier to understanding and the exchange of information and ideas created by ideological, political, and military hostility towards another.
IrredentismWhen a part of a nation maybe separate from their homeland and wishes to rejoin. Notes
Halford J. MackinderA English geographer, founder of geopolitics and geostrategy. Invented the terms manpower and heartland. Quizlet
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Seas)International agreement that defines the rights and responsibilities of nations regarding the use of the world’s oceans. Quizlet
Multiethnic StateA soverign state that is viewed as comprising two or more nations. Quizlet