How Was Society Characterized During The Renaissance

Chapters 15-16 HISTORY

Write a paragraph comparing a republic to a monarchical state. Give examples of each type of government from Renaissance Italy.A republic featured leaders elected by the populace whereas a monarchy had an hereditary absolute ruler. However, in practice, Italian Renaissance republics were often corrupt and controlled by a small group. For example, Venice’s republic was dominated by a small group of merchants aristocrats. Other states, such as the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples were monarchies, ruled absolutely, and often had political ties to other European kingdoms.
identifying the major principles of Machiavelli’s work to write a paragraph summarizing his political views.Machiavelli’s major beliefs focused primarily on the acquisition and maintenance of power above all. He broke with previous writers in stating that morality should not dominate the decision-making of a true prince. Although a prince should strive to do good, he should also be willing and ready to do evil if needed. Machiavelli also believed that humans were generally selfish and greedy.
TLDR: ends justify the means.
What contributed to the rise of the Italian states during the Renaissance?Flourishing trade, high urbanization, and the absence of one dominant central state led to the rise of the Italian states during the Renaissance.
How did Machiavelli’s work influence political power in the Western world?Machiavelli’s work influenced political power in the west by influencing and affecting many major politicians throughout history and by presenting an alternative view of power and its relationship with morality.
How was society characterized during the Renaissance?Society during the renaissance was characterized by a focus on the family, a three class society dominated by the nobility, the end of serfdom, and the rise of urban societies.
Write a paragraph explaining why vernacular literature eventually became the preferred way to produce books.Vernacular language eventually became the preferred language used to produce books because it was understood by a much greater portion of the general population than languages such as Latin. As such, it made the books more accessible to the general populace and brought more sales to publishers and writers.
effects of humanism on a Renaissance education, write a brief paragraph explaining these effects.Ultimately, humanism made Renaissance education more secular than it was before, brought scholastic focus upon the liberal arts, and sought to prepare students to be good citizens.
How did humanism help define the Italian Renaissance?Humanism helped define the Renaissance by serving as its representative belief system which both affected almost every aspect of Renaissance life from education to gender and survived past the Renaissance period to influence the modern world.
How was education during the Renaissance shaped by humanism?The goals of education during the Renaissance, namely the creation of good citizens, was heavily influenced by the ideals of humanism. Furthermore, liberal arts, the basic core of humanism, was also the focus of attention in Renaissance schools.
How did humanism influence the works of Renaissance artists and authors? Give specific examples.The humanist approach to classical Latin led to its widespread use in the writings of scholars and other writers. Humanism also influenced artists to emphasize the human-focused worldview. For instance, Masaccio mastered the laws of perspective in his frescoes, thus creating realistic styled works.
How did the works of northern European artists differ from the works of Italian artists?The works of Northern European artists were generally less detailed, more compact, and based on different mediums than those of Italian artists.
Write a paragraph that reports on indulgences by telling what they were, what people did to get them, who might buy or sell them, when or how they were given, and why they were considered desirable.Indulgences were documents approved by the church which supposedly could absolve someone from their sins and/or reduce the amount of time a soul had to spend in purgatory. Because they could, in essence, grant salvation, most common people desired them and would go on pilgrimages to relic sites to acquire them. The wealthier would simply purchase them from churchmen, including officials and monks, who would sell indulgences to fund the constructions of new churches or perhaps even to enrich themselves.
Use your notes on the steps leading to the Reformation and other insights you gathered while reading the lesson to explain that Luther did not start the Reformation on his own.It can be said that Luther did not start his revolution on his own because public discontent with the church already existed, manifesting itself in the forms of mystical movements and increased personal devotion. Furthermore, the doctrines and beliefs of Erasmus had also been written and spread by the time of Luther.
On a more practical level, the various German princes supported Luther’s revolution both as a way to take the property of the Catholic churches in their domain and to express their discontent at the presence of Papal power in their states.
How did Desiderius Erasmus and Christian humanism pave the way for the Protestant Reformation in Europe?Erasmus and Christian humanism paved the way for the Protestant reformation by creating a social atmosphere conducive and open to church reform and by establishing doctrines that called for reform within the Catholic church and a return to simpler Christianity.
What role did Martin Luther and his ideas play in the Reformation?Martin Luther at first wanted to ascertain the certainty of salvation. He also made his theses public which later spread the whole of Germany. He also talked to the princes to overthrown the papacy and establish a reformed church.
Why was the Holy Roman Empire forced to seek peace with the Lutheran princes?The Holy Roman Emperor was forced to seek peace with the Lutheran princes because he could not defeat them in battle.
Explain why England’s King Henry VIII needed the pope to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon.Henry VIII needed the Pope’s permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon because in Catholicism divorce was not allowed unless it was specifically approved by the church authorities.
Use your notes to identify the characteristics of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland and England.The Protestant Reformation in England was largely an artificial change brought about by King Henry VIII and his supporters, who acquired the land, rights, and wealth of the church. Protestant reforms in Switzerland started from Ulrich Zwingli, who began reforms in Zurich. It continued under John Calvin, who had escape to Switzerland from France and would begin his Calvinist doctrine and the establishment of a Calvinist society in Switzerland.
Why did Calvinism become an important form of Protestantism by the mid-sixteenth century?Calvinism became a major form of Protestantism in the mid-sixteenth century because it was spread through the use of the printing press and because Calvinists established their own society in Geneva, thus granting their beliefs a degree of legitimacy.
What made the English Reformation different from the Reformation in the rest of Europe?The English reformation was different from the ones in Europe because it was brought about by Henry VIII, not by an individual thinker, priest, etc., in order to gain church properties and a divorce. He did not, however, begin the reformation for spiritual reasons or other such concerns.
Why were Anabaptists considered by both Catholics and Protestants to be dangerous radicals?Anabaptists were prosecuted by both Catholics and Protestants because they had many anti-establishment doctrines which were seen as threats to the establishments of both religious orders.
How did the Reformation affect European society?The Reformation affected European society by establishing two conflicting religious orders that dominated the countries of Europe, by starting many religious wars, and by prompting a wave of self-reform in the Catholic church.
What prompted the Catholic Reformation during the sixteenth century?The increasing threat of Protestantism, the founding of new Catholic orders, and a prevailing Catholic belief that they were at threat led to the Catholic Reformation in the 16th century.