Jamille Is Taking French In School

chp 8 psych

Research on young children’s false eyewitness recollections has indicated thatit is surprisingly difficult for both children and professional interviewers to reliably separate the children’s true memories from false memories.
In the study led by Elizabeth Loftus, two groups of observers were asked how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word “smashed” in relation to the accident later recalledbroken glass at the scene of the accident.
Words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land. This best illustratescontext-dependent memory.
Jamille is taking French in school. She gets her best grades on vocabulary tests if she studies for 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known asthe spacing effect
Elevated levels of stress hormones most clearly contribute to developingflashbulb memories
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustratesmotivated forgiving
As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre’s false recollection best illustratessource of amnesia
Which neural center in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage?hippocampus
The original Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage information-processing model introduced distinctions amongsensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Hermann Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initiallyrapid and subsequently slows down.
To help resolve the controversy over reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, the major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest thatadult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable.
For a moment after hearing his dog’s high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog’s yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.echoic
Encoding a written word semantically rather than on the basis of the word’s written appearance illustrates a distinction betweendeep and shallow processing.
Procedural memories for well-learned skills such as how to ride a bicycle are typically ________ memories.implicit
The process of encoding refers togetting information into memory
Memory to recall, recognition, and relearningfill in the blank, multiple choice, how much less work it takes to learn info you’ve study before
memoryof learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of info and skills
encoding, storage, and retrievalinfo that gets in our brains, holds the info that can be retrieved, reacting and recalling the info
sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memorystimuli are recorded by our senses and held, encoding through rehearsal, retrieved later
working memoryshort term memory
Explicit memory and effortful processingfacts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall, studying and rehearsing, thinking about then storing info in long term
automatic processing and implicit memorywithout our awareness that we are building a memory, and the ones we are not full aware of and thus don’t talk about
echoic memory and George Sperling with iconic memoryauditory sensory memory, did the experiment where he showed a group of letters for visual sensory memory
capacity of short term memory and working memory7 +/-2 info bits (5-9 letters) and a myth that we can handle 2 streams of similar info simultaneously
spacing effect and testing effectuse the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter session and having to answer questions about the material
shallow processing and deep processingmemorizing the appearance or sound of words and remembering better
memory storage- implicit and explicit memoryretaining info in the brain- cerebellum(forms and conditioned responses) and front lobes and hippocampus(how we hold stories)
Flashbulbs memoriesrefer to emotionally intense event that become burned in as a vivid seeming memory (not as accurate)
Hermann Ebbinghaus retention curvediscovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned info is initially rapid and subsequently slows down
Primingtriggers a thread of associations that brings us to a concept
Context-dependent memory, state-dependent, and mood- congruentwe retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory, we were in when we formed the memory, refers to the tendency to selectively recall details that are consistent with ones current mood
serial position effectthe tendency to move likely recall the first terms (primary effect) and last items (recent effect)
storage decaymaterial encoded into long term memory will decay if the memory is never used recalled and re stored
retrieval failure to include retroactive and proactive interferenceoccurs when new stimuli/ learning interferes with the storage and retrieval of previously formed memories, occurs when past info interferes with learning new info
motivated forgetting to included repressionchoosing to forget (compulsive gamblers) to hiding the memories
misinformation effect with car accident by Elizabeth Loftusincorporating misleading info into ones memory event. she used the words hit and smash to change ones image of the accident
Source Amnesiathinking you remember but the memory is something someone told you (the hot air balloon picture)