Managers Tend To Have A Short-Term Perspective, Leaders Tend To Have A Long-Term Perspective.

Chapter 14 Test Bank

T or F

One of the differences between managers and leaders is that managers focus on visions, missions, goals, and objectives, and leaders focus solely on productivity and efficiency.

F
T or F

The primary difference between leaders and managers is that leaders are concerned with doing the right thing, while managers are concerned with doing things right.

T
T or F

Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.

T
T or F

Whereas managers tend to have a short-term perspective, leaders tend to have a long-term perspective

T
T or F

According to the trait theory, all effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics.

T
T or F

Since there are no consistent trait differences between leaders and nonleaders, or between effective and ineffective leaders, trait theory is wrong

F
T or F

The leadership trait of integrity refers to the extent to which leaders do what they said they would d

T
T or F

As a leader behavior, initiating structure is the degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks.

T
T or F

As a leader behavior, consideration refers to the extent to which leaders do what they said they would do.

F
T or F

Initiating structure leader behavior has also been referred to as “job-centered leadership” and “concern for production.”

T
T or F

Consideration leader behavior has also been referred to as “concern for people” and “employee-centered leadership.”

T
T or F

While consideration primarily affects subordinates’ job performance, initiating structure primarily affects subordinates’ job satisfaction.

F
T or F

Researchers believe leaders can simultaneously be considerate and initiate structure because consideration and initiating structure are independent behaviors.

T
T or F

The three major situational leadership theories all assume that the effectiveness of any leadership style (the way a leader generally behaves toward followers) depends on the situation.

T
T or F

There is no such thing as a “best” leadership style for all situations and employees.

T
T or F

Fiedler’s contingency theory is based on the assumption that leaders are capable of adapting and adjusting their leadership styles to fit the demands of different situations.

F
T or F

Fiedler’s contingency theory states that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the situation that best fits their leadership style

T
T or F

In Fiedler’s contingency theory, the two situational factors that determine the favorability of a situation are leader-member relations and task structure

F
T or F

Fiedler’s contingency theory has been successfully used to place leaders in appropriate situations where they can perform most efficiently.

T
T or F

Fiedler’s contingency theory has proven easy for practicing managers to understand and apply.

F
T or F

As described in the path-goal theory, directive leadership is similar to the key leadership behavior of initiating structure

T
T or F

Directive leadership is a leadership style in which leaders set challenging goals, have high expectations of employees, and display confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort.

F
T or F

Within the path-goal model, the achievement-oriented and participative leadership styles directly parallel the key leadership behaviors of initiating structure and consideration, respectively.

F
T or F

The normative decision theory helps leaders decide how much employee participation should be used when making decisions.

T
T or F

According to the normative decision theory, using the right degree of employee participation improves the quality of decisions and the extent to which employees accept and are committed to decisions.

T
T or F

Strategic leadership is defined as the ability to think strategically and create a strategic plan for an organization.

F
T or F

Transformational leadership is leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group’s purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group.

T
T or F

While transformational leaders use visionary and inspirational appeals to influence followers, transactional leadership is based on an exchange process.

T
Effective managers define ____ as the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
a.
management
b.
leadership
c.
interpersonal influence
d.
supervision
e.
autonomy
B
Which of the following is a major concern of managers (as opposed to leaders)?
a.
maintaining the status quo
b.
inspiring and motivating others
c.
taking a long-term view
d.
promoting change
e.
organizational improvements
A
One of the criticisms of the television industry is the networks’ desire to maintain ratings by thinking in terms of next week’s programming. The networks are also more concerned with how to get high program ratings quickly than achieving the ratings through giving viewers time to become acquainted with high-quality programs. Problem solving in terms of show placement or guest stars seems to be more important than inspiring great television innovations. This criticism assumes ____.
a.
doing the right things is more important than doing things right in the television industry
b.
the television industry benefits from strong leadership
c.
long-term strategy is more important than tactics in the television industry
d.
the television industry has a shortage of effective leadership
e.
the television industry attracts more architects than builder
D
Which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?
a.
controlling and limiting the choices of others
b.
solving problems so that work can be done
c.
preserving the status quo
d.
inspiring and motivating others
e.
a focus on productivity and efficiency
D
Ford Motor Company has always attracted and nurtured capable managers, but it has failed to do the same for leaders. So, as part of an overhaul of the automaker’s organizational culture, Ford is embarking on a sweeping attempt to mass-manufacture leaders. It wants to build an army of “warrior-entrepreneurs.” Ford’s “warrior-entrepreneurs” will be expected to ____.
a.
take a long-term perspective
b.
inspire and motivate employees to embrace change
c.
realize that results are more important than processes
d.
be architects rather than builders
e.
do all of these things
E
Airline companies have blamed their recent financial problems on labor unions, the events of September 11, and a weak economy. Those airlines in financial difficulties have tried to solve the problem through short-term price reductions, firings and early retirements, and asking for employees to take pay cuts. The CEOs of these companies have not tried to motivate employees to create long-term solutions to the problems facing the companies. The CEOs of these troubled companies ____.
a.
are true leaders
b.
are more interested in doing the right thing than doing things right
c.
are promoting long-term change
d.
tend to focus on organizational visions, missions, goals, and objectives rather than organizational efficiency and productivity
e.
are more than likely managers rather than leaders
E
When Jack Welch went to work for General Electric, he immediately began to make drastic changes in the company’s structure and product lines. He envisioned a bloated, inefficient General Electric becoming an efficient, profitable organization over time. He inspired and motivated his employees to change. Jack Welch ____.
a.
would be characterized as a leader
b.
had a short-term perspective
c.
emphasized means rather than ends
d.
acted as a builder rather than an architect
e.
would be characterized as a manager
A
Which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?
a.
Organizations need both leaders and managers.
b.
Leaders are critical to getting out the day-to-day work.
c.
Managers are critical to inspiring employees and setting long-term direction.
d.
Most organizations place greater emphasis on leadership than on management.
e.
All of these statements about leaders and managers are true.
A
Relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership.
a.
situational theory
b.
behavioral theory
c.
trait theory
d.
expectancy theory
e.
path-goal theory
C
According to an article from CIO Magazine, “Leadership grows from courage and integrity.” From this opening statement, you know the article will discuss leadership from the ____.
a.
University of Michigan perspective
b.
trait theory viewpoint
c.
situational approach to leadership
d.
motivational approach to leadership
e.
Hershey and Blanchard perspective
B
The “great person” theory is another name for the ____ theory of leadership.
a.
trait
b.
behavioral
c.
situational
d.
path-goal
e.
leader formalization
A
Which one of the following traits refers to high levels of effort and is characterized by achievement, motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative?
a.
desire to lead
b.
motivational cues
c.
drive
d.
self-confidence
e.
charisma
C
Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which leaders are truthful with others?
a.
honesty
b.
self-confidence
c.
emotional stability
d.
charisma
e.
extroversion
A
Oftentimes when an individual is running for a local political office, he or she promises to consider each issue, make decisions that are good for the entire community, and reduce taxes. When the individual assumes office, he or she is often unable to carry through on political promises, an inability which leads to a perceived problem with ____.
a.
honesty
b.
integrity
c.
empathy
d.
drive
e.
charisma
B
Leaders who possess the trait of ____ are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others’ confidence.
a.
emotional stability
b.
integrity
c.
self-confidence
d.
drive
e.
cognitive ability
C
Which of the following traits refers to the tendency of leaders to remain even-tempered and consistent in their outlook and the way they treat others even when things go wrong?
a.
honesty
b.
integrity
c.
emotional stability
d.
self-confidence
e.
cognitive ability
C
Which of the following statements about what makes a successful leader is true?
a.
Successful leaders have the same traits that nonleaders have.
b.
Successful leaders have drive, which is defined as the ability to attract and retain the best employees.
c.
Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions even if the decisions seem risky to others.
d.
Successful leaders believe in individual reciprocity.
e.
None of these statements about what makes a successful leader is true.
C
Successful business leaders are not like other people. Successful business leaders ____.
a.
have a desire to lead
b.
have emotional stability
c.
are knowledgeable about business
d.
are self-confident
e.
are accurately described by all of these
E
Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ____ and ____, are central to successful leadership.
a.
initiating structure; consideration
b.
initiating structure; job-centered leadership
c.
employee-centered leadership; consideration
d.
concern for production; job-centered leadership
e.
autonomous; participative
A
Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
a.
initiating structure behavior
b.
participative management
c.
job-centered leadership
d.
concern for production
e.
employee-centered leadership
E
Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
a.
initiating structure behavior
b.
job-centered leadership
c.
concern for people
d.
concern for production
e.
participative management
C
In terms of leadership behavior, the term ____ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.
a.
initiating structure
b.
job-centered leadership
c.
consideration
d.
concern for production
e.
autonomy
C
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research has made a study of how important it is for military leaders to be friendly with and to show concern for their troops. Its research shows that a leadership behavior high in ____ positively influences soldier health and their ability to adapt to stressful environments.
a.
achievement
b.
charisma
c.
consideration
d.
initiating structure
e.
vision
C
Doris Cunningham, CEO of Members Choice Federal Credit Union in West Virginia, believes keeping staff excited about the business they’re in is one of a leader’s primary roles. She believes a spirit of enthusiasm must start at the top. “I’ve been in the movement for 35 years,” she says. “I have the credit union philosophy. And I really try to instill that in my employees.” This indicates that Cunningham is high in ____.
a.
achievement
b.
charisma
c.
consideration
d.
initiating structure
e.
vision
C
United Fruit Company is the owner of the Chiquita brand of bananas. To get the bananas picked, United Fruit used a leadership style high in ____ and emphasized how the fruit was to be picked and packed for transportation. It showed no concern for the workers.
a.
achievement
b.
charisma
c.
consideration
d.
initiating structure
e.
vision
D
College football coaches are often high in ____. They design every facet of practices, set goals for their players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the games.
a.
achievement
b.
consideration
c.
charisma
d.
initiating structure
e.
empathy
D
Stan O’Neal began his tenure as the CEO of Merrill Lynch by firing the entire management committee. A few months later he fired two of his hand-picked senior executives because they were “plotting to diminish his authority” and did not want to follow his orders unquestioningly. Due to the key leadership behavior O’Neal used, it is obvious that he was more concerned about his employees’ ____ than their job satisfaction.
a.
worker synergy
b.
motivational cues
c.
job performance
d.
worker responsiveness
e.
vision
C
Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic’s CEO Betsy McLaughlin relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. She relies on their input before making inventory decisions and treats her employees as equals. McLaughlin is demonstrating ____.
a.
achievement-orientation
b.
consideration
c.
charisma
d.
initiating structure
e.
empathy
B
Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?
a.
considerate leader behavior
b.
employee-centered leadership
c.
concern for people
d.
concern for production
e.
formalized people skills
D
A CEO who tours company plants to meet and talk to employees at all levels in order to better understand their concerns and feelings is demonstrating which type of leader behavior?
a.
consideration
b.
leader formalization
c.
autonomy
d.
reciprocity
e.
initiating structure
A
Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts primarily on ____.
a.
job satisfaction; job performance
b.
job performance; job satisfaction
c.
job performance; motivational drive
d.
job satisfaction; worker synergy
e.
job description; job specification
B
Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true?
a.
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and consideration.
b.
These behaviors are dependent, meaning that leaders can only do one at a time.
c.
The worst leadership style entails the use of both behaviors in equal amounts.
d.
The best leadership style entails high levels of both of these behaviors.
e.
Most effective leaders select one behavior, adopt it, and maintain that style of leadership for their entire career
A
Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true?
a.
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and constructing networks.
b.
These behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time.
c.
These behaviors both impact primarily on job performance.
d.
These behaviors have minimal impact on work environments.
e.
All of these statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership are true.
B
Which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
a.
team management
b.
middle of the road management
c.
authority-compliance
d.
country club management
e.
none of these
E
Herman Edwards is the coach of the New York Jets football team. As a successful coach, he has to schedule structured practices, emphasize careful planning, and assign tasks. He also has to show the players that he genuinely cares about them as people. According to the Blake and Mouton grid, Edwards’ leadership style would be characterized as ____.
a.
authority-compliance
b.
country club management
c.
middle-of-the-road management
d.
team management
e.
impoverished management
D
Which of the following is an example of a situational theory of leadership?
a.
stimulus-response theory
b.
trait theory
c.
Fiedler’s contingency theory
d.
equity theory of leadership
e.
charismatic theory
C
Which of the following leadership theories assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change?
a.
path-goal theory
b.
normative decision theory
c.
the Vroom theory
d.
the status quo theory of leadership
e.
none of these
E
W. L. Gore is the company that created Gore-Tex among many other innovative products. Gore employees (known as associates) don’t have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. At Gore, few leaders are appointed; leaders simply emerge as needed by the other employees or the project itself. Gore more than likely adheres to the ____ theory of leadership.
a.
contingency
b.
normative
c.
strategic
d.
trait
e.
visionary
A
In Fiedler’s contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers.
a.
situational favorableness
b.
leader-member relations
c.
task structure
d.
position power
e.
situational unfavorableness
D
In Fiedler’s contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.
a.
situational favorableness
b.
leader-member relations
c.
task structure
d.
position power
e.
task favorableness
A
Stan O’Neal began his tenure as the CEO of Merrill Lynch by firing the entire management committee. A few months later he fired two of his hand-picked senior executives because they were “plotting to diminish his authority” and did not want to follow his orders unquestioningly. In terms of Fiedler’s contingency theory, O’Neal was most concerned with establishing ____.
a.
situational favorableness
b.
consideration
c.
position power
d.
goal commitment
e.
empowerment quality
A
Larry Tobin is now president of Fairwinds Credit Union in Florida where he started as a part-time teller. He’s learned to ignore one bit of advice he’s frequently heard, “Work with what you have.” Tobin doesn’t buy that view. He subscribes to the philosophy that calls for “having the right people on the bus and the right people in the right seats on the bus.” After Tobin assumed the helm at Fairwinds, he made several personnel changes. Which of the following seems most important to Tobin?
a.
situational favorableness
b.
initiating structure
c.
position power
d.
goal commitment
e.
empowerment quality
A
Larry Tobin is now president of Fairwinds Credit Union in Florida where he started as a part-time teller. He’s learned to ignore one bit of advice he’s frequently heard, “Work with what you have.” Tobin doesn’t buy that view. He subscribes to the philosophy that calls for “having the right people on the bus and the right people in the right seats on the bus.” After Tobin assumed the helm at Fairwinds, he made several personnel changes. This ability to make these personnel changes defines Tobin’s ____.
a.
employee orientation
b.
position power
c.
goal specificity
d.
instrumentality
e.
tactical leadership skills
B
Some employees called CEO Jack Welch “Bloody Jack” because his restructuring efforts at General Electric eliminated numerous jobs and product lines without thought about how individual employees were impacted. Welch was viewed as “the hatchet man,” the source of the firings. Under Fiedler’s contingency theory, Welch would be viewed by General Electric’s employees as having ____.
a.
an emphasis on initiating structure
b.
a relationship orientation
c.
weak position power
d.
strong position power
e.
an emphasis on consideration
D
Stan O’Neal began his tenure as the CEO of Merrill Lynch by firing the entire management committee. A few months later he fired two of his hand-picked senior executives because they were “plotting to diminish his authority” and did not want to follow his orders unquestioningly. In terms of situational favorableness, O’Neal demonstrated ____.
a.
high leader-member relations
b.
high initiating structure
c.
high goal commitment
d.
high power position
e.
all of these
D
Which of the following approaches to implementing Fiedler’s contingency theory in the workplace has proven effective?
a.
accurately measuring and matching leaders to situations
b.
teaching managers how to change situational favorableness
c.
arbitrary definition of situations
d.
only hiring supervisors with appropriate leadership traits
e.
creating standing plans concerning leader actions and reactions
A
According to ____, leaders need to make clear how followers can achieve organizational goals, take care of problems that prevent followers from achieving goals, and then find more and varied rewards to motivate followers who achieve those goals.
a.
Fiedler’s contingency theory
b.
Blake and Mouton’s leadership grid
c.
the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model
d.
the path-goal theory
e.
the Boston Consulting Group leadership matrix
D
Which of the following is NOT one of the four leadership styles identified in the path-goal theory of leadership?
a.
directive
b.
supportive
c.
participative
d.
charismatic
e.
achievement-oriented
D
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.
a.
people-oriented leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
directive leadership
E
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ involves being friendly and approachable to employees, showing concern for them and their welfare, treating them as equals, and creating a friendly climate.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
leadership empowerment
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
participative leadership
B
Jeffrey Bleustein was the CEO who brought Harley-Davidson back from the brink of bankruptcy. During the first years he was CEO of Harley-Davidson, Bleustein said, “I was quite a directive leader because we needed to make progress quickly.” Bleustein would have ____.
a.
been very friendly with his employees
b.
told employees precisely what he expected them to do
c.
used employees’ inputs before making decisions
d.
assumed his employees would assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort
e.
used delegation
B
Jan Carlson, the former CEO of Scandinavian Airline Systems (SAS), believes the most important role for a leader is to instill confidence in people. According to the path-goal theory, this statement indicates that his leadership style would be ____.
a.
directive
b.
achievement-oriented
c.
employee-centered
d.
supportive
e.
job-centered
D
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ is very similar to considerate leader behavior.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
people-oriented leadership
B
Stan O’Neal began his tenure at the CEO of Merrill-Lynch by firing the entire management committee. A few months later he fired two of his hand-picked senior executives because they were “plotting to diminish his authority” and did not want to follow his orders unquestioningly. O’Neal is using a(n) ____ leadership style to improve Merrill’s profitability.
a.
achievement-oriented
b.
supportive
c.
charismatic
d.
directive
e.
participative
D
When Leon was hired to manage the distribution center, his supervisor advised him to “Do things that satisfy followers today or will lead to future rewards or satisfaction” and “Offer employees something unique and valuable beyond what they’re experiencing or can already do for themselves” if he wanted to be a successful leader. Which leadership theory does Leon’s supervisor apparently believe to be most effective in making a good leader?
a.
the trait theory of leadership
b.
strategic leadership
c.
the path-goal theory
d.
the theory of initiating structure
e.
the contingency theory
C
Under the leadership of Michael Eisner, Walt Disney Company developed an “executive-centric, Eisner-centric culture”—whatever Eisner wanted to happen, he made happen. In terms of the path-goal theory, Eisner used a(n) ____ leadership style to improve Disney’s profitability.
a.
achievement-oriented
b.
supportive
c.
charismatic
d.
directive
e.
participative
D
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ involves consulting employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
consultative leadership
e.
achievement-oriented leadership
C
In the path-goal theory of leadership, subordinate satisfaction and subordinate performance would be examples of ____.
a.
leadership stimuli
b.
subordinate contingencies
c.
environmental contingencies
d.
outcomes
e.
motivational cues
D
Which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency in path-goal theory?
a.
locus of control
b.
subordinate experience
c.
perceived ability
d.
subordinate performance
e.
task structure
E
Pat Kelly, founder and CEO of PSS World Medical, a distributor of medical products, establishes ambitious goals for his employees and is confident that they will be able to achieve these goals. In terms of the path-goal theory, Kelly is exhibiting ____ leadership.
a.
participative
b.
achievement-oriented
c.
delegating
d.
empowering
e.
supportive
B
During his tenure as the CEO of Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB), John Mack turned the money-losing bank into a profitable firm by “goading workers to move out of their comfort zones” and setting challenging goals for them. His high expectation for his employees indicates that Mack used a(n) ____ leadership style.
a.
achievement-oriented
b.
supportive
c.
charismatic
d.
democratic
e.
participative
A
According to the path-goal theory, which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency?
a.
the formal authority system
b.
perceived ability
c.
locus of control
d.
subordinate satisfaction
e.
focus of subordinate
A
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ means setting challenging goals, having high expectations of employees, and displaying confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
empowerment leadership
D
Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic’s CEO Betsy McLaughlin relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. She relies on their input before making inventory decisions. McLaughlin uses the ____ style of management.
a.
achievement-oriented
b.
autonomous
c.
charismatic
d.
directive
e.
participative
E
The normative decision theory ____.
a.
states that the situation determines what leadership style to use
b.
assumes that certain inalienable characteristics determine the most effective leaders
c.
helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making
d.
assumes leader behavior can be fitted to subordinate characteristics
e.
assumes leaders are generally unable to change their leadership style
C
To save Northwest Airlines from bankruptcy, its CEO Doug Steenland told its employees that he would eliminate 53 percent of the company’s mechanics and reduce the compensation of the remaining by 26 percent. In terms of the normative decision theory, Steenland ____.
a.
made consultative decisions
b.
used a telling leadership style
c.
made autocratic decisions
d.
used a selling leadership style
e.
used an adaptive leadership style
C
In many organizations, sales managers develop companywide sales forecasts by asking members of the sales force to decide how much growth they anticipate in their individual sales territories. Sales managers then take the input from the individual salespeople and create the companywide sales forecasts based on the information supplied by their subordinates. In the normative decision model, this would be an example of a(n) ____ decision-making style.
a.
consultative
b.
group
c.
autocratic
d.
participative
e.
supportive
A
Which of the following is an example of a rule used within normative decision theory to increase decision quality?
a.
the subordinate conflict rule
b.
the goal congruence rule
c.
the worker readiness rule
d.
the commitment requirement rule
e.
the commitment probability rule
B
Which of the following leadership theories uses a decision tree to determine the appropriate level of participation by subordinates in decision making?
a.
Fiedler’s contingency theory
b.
Blake and Mouton’s leadership grid
c.
path-goal theory
d.
Vroom-Yetton-Jago’s normative decision model
e.
trait theory
D
____ is the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate change that will create a positive future for the organization.
a.
Strategic leadership
b.
Initiating leadership
c.
Vision congruence
d.
Progressive leadership
e.
Empathetic leadership
A
Trucking companies are facing labor shortages and unprecedented worker mobility. Leaders are needed that will do more than simply manage or direct drivers, owner-operators, and the staff that supports them. Instead these leaders need to inspire, coach, encourage, and guide. They need to earn consensus by working as part of the team, providing resources to get the job done, then getting out of the way and letting their people perform. They need to be ____ leaders.
a.
strategic
b.
transactional
c.
directive
d.
autonomous
e.
job-oriented
A
____ is leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and provides direction for future planning and goal setting.
a.
Visionary leadership
b.
Supportive leadership
c.
Transactional leadership
d.
Achievement-oriented leadership
e.
Leadership empowerment
A
Malcolm Thompson was brought in as the CEO of Novalux, a company involved in laser research, to save the company’s promise of innovation. It’s what he loves: turning ideas into companies, then shaping those businesses to meet evolving challenges. “You’re never done,” he says. “It always looks like you’re near the finish line, but there are always new opportunities along the road—and new obstacles you’d never thought of. That’s part of the exploration—constantly looking at the next problem and the next solution.” Apparently, Thompson is an example of a(n) ____.
a.
leadership substitute
b.
trait leader
c.
leadership neutralizer
d.
visionary leader
e.
transactional leader
D
The two types of visionary leadership are ____.
a.
tactical leadership and charismatic leadership
b.
charismatic leadership and transformational leadership
c.
situational leadership and transactional leadership
d.
transformational leadership and transactional leadership
e.
situational leadership and strategic leadership
B
The author of The Science of Good and Evil describes his meeting with the founders of Google in the book. He described them as visionary leaders, which means their primary goal for being in business is to ____.
a.
get rich
b.
show off their intelligence and expertise
c.
create a positive image of the future
d.
have as much free time as possible
e.
be charismatic
C
The two kinds of charismatic leaders are referred to as ____.
a.
ethical charismatics and unethical charismatics
b.
effective charismatics and ineffective charismatics
c.
transformational and transactional leaders
d.
visionary and nonvisionary leaders
e.
those who have learned how to be charismatic and those who are naturally charismatic
A
The 1993 stand-off between federal agents and people inside the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, Texas, resulted in the deaths of approximately 80 Branch Davidians, including leader David Koresh who had declared himself the new messiah. Koresh used ____ to create the strong relationships between him and his followers who were willing to die for him.
a.
a leadership substitute
b.
transactional leadership
c.
a leadership neutralizer
d.
charismatic leadership
e.
trait leadership
D
____ refers to the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers.
a.
Consideration leadership
b.
Charismatic leadership
c.
Transactional leadership
d.
Transformational leadership
e.
Leadership empowerment
B
Charismatic leaders ____.
a.
articulate a vision based on strongly held values
b.
have strong coercive and reward power
c.
have trouble delegating
d.
base their influence on an exchange process in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance
e.
are accurately described by none of these
A
People with Machiavellian personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals. Put that personality type with the ability to create strong bonds with followers and you have described a leader who is a(n) ____.
a.
negative transformation leader
b.
transactional leader
c.
country club manager
d.
reactive leader
e.
unethical charismatic leader
E
Leaders known as ____ will control and manipulate followers, do what is best for themselves instead of his or her organization, only want to hear positive feedback, only share information that is beneficial to themselves, and have moral standards that put their interests before everyone else’s.
a.
manipulative charismatics
b.
Machiavellian charismatics
c.
unethical charismatics
d.
illegitimate charismatics
e.
charismatic ombudsmen
C
Transformational leaders ____.
a.
are able to make their followers feel they are a vital part of the organization
b.
encourage followers to make sacrifices for the organization
c.
help followers see how their jobs fit with the organization’s vision
d.
get employees to see beyond their own needs for the good of the group
e.
are accurately described by all of these
E
James Casey founded UPS in 1907 as a message delivery business. The development of the telephone would have put an end to the business if Casey had not been a ____ leader who was able to get his employees to accomplish more than they had thought possible and re-invent the company as a company that delivered goods for retailers.
a.
transformational
b.
substitute
c.
participative
d.
transactional
e.
supportive
A
____ generates awareness and acceptance of a group’s purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group.
a.
Virtual leadership
b.
Charismatic leadership
c.
Leadership empowerment
d.
Transformational leadership
e.
Transactional leadership
D
Which of the following is NOT a component of transformational leadership?
a.
idealized influence
b.
supportive influence
c.
intellectual stimulation
d.
individualized consideration
e.
inspirational motivation
B
Which of the following is one of the steps recommended for companies to take to reduce the risks associated with unethical charismatic leaders?
a.
Enforce a clearly written code of conduct.
b.
Recruit, select, and promote managers with high ethical standards.
c.
Train leaders how to value, seek, and use diverse points of view.
d.
Reward employees who act ethically, especially managers.
e.
All of these are recommended steps to take to reduce the risks associated with unethical charismatics.
E
Transactional leaders ____.
a.
reward followers for good behavior and punish followers for poor behavior
b.
help followers see how their jobs fit with the organization’s vision
c.
pay special attention to individual needs by creating learning opportunities
d.
motivate followers by providing them with meaningful and challenging work
e.
are accurately described by all of these
A
As CEO of UPS, Michael Eskew transformed the company from a package delivery service to a logistics expert so it could serve as a traffic manager for corporate America. As a transformational manager, Eskew ____.
a.
insisted his employees do the right thing
b.
created opportunities for rewards
c.
used intellectual stimulation to encourage his employees to take innovative approaches to problem solving
d.
encouraged his employees to depend on information technology as the basis for decision-making
e.
created heuristics to guide the transformation procedure
C
____ is based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance.
a.
Visionary leadership
b.
Charismatic leadership
c.
Leadership empowerment
d.
Transformational leadership
e.
Transactional leadership
E
The component of transformational leadership known as ____ means that transformational leaders pay special attention to followers’ individual needs by creating learning opportunities, accepting and tolerating individual differences, encouraging two-way communication, and being a good listener.
a.
idealized influence
b.
inspirational motivation
c.
intellectual stimulation
d.
individualized consideration
e.
influential stimulation
D
Which leadership style would be most likely to rely on positive and negative reinforcement?
a.
transformational leadership
b.
charismatic leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
delegating leadership
e.
transactional leadership
E
Research results consistently show ____.
a.
transformational leadership is much more effective on average than transactional leadership
b.
transactional leadership is much more effective on average than transformational leadership
c.
transformational and transactional leadership are both equally effective
d.
transformational leadership tends to emerge from transactional leadership
e.
transformational leadership based on a vision is more effective than when it is based on an exchange process
A