Planets Formed From ____ Left Over From The Formation Of The Sun At The Center Of The Cloud.

Chapter 10-11 Study Guide

Pluto’s orbit sometimes causes this planet to be the ninth, and not the eighth, planet from the Sun.Neptune
A “shooting star,” or meteor, is actually a meteoroid that burns up in Earth’s atmosphere.True
____ is the third planet from the Sun.Earth
Earth’s axis of rotation is almost parallel to the plane of its orbitFalse
The surface of Mars has long channels that may have been caused by flowing waterTrue
The outer planets are small, rocky planets with iron cores.False
Methane absorbs the red and yellow light on ____, while the clouds of these planets reflect the green and blue lightUranus and Neptune
The Sun was formed when energy caused by ____ in the center of the cloud of gas and dust radiated into space.Nuclear Fusion
____ is the largest planet in the solar system, is the fifth planet from the Sun, and has colorful clouds. One of its 17 moons is the most volcanically active object in the solar system. The planet has a liquid ocean and atmosphere comprised mostly of hydrogen and helium. It may have a rocky core, although its extreme pressure and temperature would make the core different from any rock on Earth.Jupiter
A comet develops a tail because of ____.The Solar Wind
____ is an outer planet with an unusual orbit.Pluto
Evidence suggests that ____ originate in the Oort Cloud located beyond the orbit of Pluto.Comets
____ are pieces of rock that strike the surface of a moon or planet.Meteorites
Planets formed from ____ left over from the formation of the Sun at the center of the cloud.Gas, ice, and dust
Most of the frozen ice in a comet’s ____ vaporizes after the comet’s many trips around the Sun.Nucleus
Solar energy trapped by gases in Venus’s atmosphere causes ____.The Greenhouse effect
Pluto differs from the other outer planets in that ____.All of the above
Pluto’s moon, ____, has a diameter equal to half of Pluto’sCharon
Neptune was the last planet to be visited by the ____ space probe.Voyager ll
Smaller pieces of rock from old, broken-up comets become ____.Meteoroids
Venus and Earth both experience a ____ because of heat trapped by their atmospheres.Greenhouse Effect
The Oort cloud is a large collection of comets that surrounds the solar system.True
Scientists hypothesize that the Sun formed ____.From a cloud of gas and dust
Two of the inner planets are ____.Mars and Venus
Mercury is the ____ planet from the Sun.First
Saturn’s density is so low that the entire planet could float in water.True
Water is found as a solid, liquid, and gas on ____.Earth
Io, the closest large moon to Saturn, is volcanically active.False
Ganymede is a volcano on the planet JupiterFalse
In 1543, ____ published his views of Earth and other planets revolving around the Sun.Copernicus
Venus experiences an intense greenhouse effect.True
Vaporized gases and released dust form a bright cloud called a(n) ____ around the solid part of a comet.Coma
Pluto is considered the ____ planet.Ninth
Scientists know the least about the planet ____.Pluto
The first and only American space mission to Mercury was ____.Mariner 10
One of ____ moons is larger than the planets Pluto and Mercury.Saturn’s
One of ____ moons is larger than the planets Pluto and MercuryMercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
____ for a planet to form in the asteroid belt.Jupiter’s galaxy may been too great
Match the comet parts below with the letters labeling the parts in Figure 24-2.

1. Tail 2. Coma 3. Nucleus

1. C
2. B
3. A
____ has colorful clouds in bands of white, red, tan, and brown.Jupiter
People once believed that all planets and stars orbited around ____.Earth
Pluto is different from the other outer planets because ____.None of the Above
Name PlanetsMercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
The greenhouse effect on Earth keeps it warm enough for liquid water to exist. However, on Venus, the greenhouse effect warms the planet to ____.475*C
The orbits of ____ lie closer to the Sun than does Earth’s orbit.Mercury and Venus
Small pieces of rock that enter Earth’s atmosphere at speeds of 15 to 70 km/s and burn up are called ____.Meteors
This planet has no true atmosphere.Mercury
Dark-colored storms and eight moonsMaria
Iron oxide and polar ice capsMars
Largest planetJupiter
Smallest planetPluto
Axis of rotation tilted on its sideUranus
Greenhouse effect causes extremely high surface temperaturesVenus
Craters, cliffs, and a weak magnetic fieldMercury
Liquid water oceansEarth
Most complex ring systemSaturn
____ was the first planet studied by the Voyager space probes.Jupiter
The structure of a comet is considered to be like a large, ____, or a mass of frozen ice and rockDirty Snowball
A comet develops a coma because of ____.Heat from the Sun
The Viking landers sent back pictures of the reddish-colored, barren, rocky, windswept surface of ____.Mars
Galileo used his telescope to discover evidence for the Sun-centered model of the solar system. This evidence included all of the following EXCEPT ____.The discovery of Neptune and Pluto

Chapter 16 Solar System

The heliocentric system gained support when Galileo observed thatVenus goes through phases similar to those of Earth’s moon.
In a heliocentric system, Earth revolves aroundthe sun
The fact that each planet’s orbit is an ellipse was discovered byKepler
The solar system formed froma gigantic cloud of gas and dust
Small asteroid-like bodies that became the building blocks for the planets are calledplanetesimals
The sun produces energy bynuclear fusion
What layer are you looking at when you look at an image of the sun?photosphere
The solar wind is a stream of electrically charged particles that extend outward from the sun’scorona
What do the four outer planets have in commonThey are much larger than Earth and are made mainly of hydrogen and helium.
What do all of the inner planets have in common?They all are small and have rocky surfaces.
Methane absorbs the red and yellow light on ____, while the clouds of these planets reflect the green and blue light.Uranus and Neptune
____ has colorful clouds in bands of white, red, tan, and brown.Jupiter
Vaporized gases and released dust form a bright cloud called a(n) ____ around the solid part of a comet.coma
In 1543, ____ published his views of Earth and other planets revolving around the Sun.Copernicus
Smaller pieces of rock from old, broken-up comets become ____.meteoroids
Small pieces of rock that enter Earth’s atmosphere at speeds of 15 to 70 km/s and burn up are called ____.meteors
____ are pieces of rock that strike the surface of a moon or planet.Meteorites
Evidence suggests that ____ originate in the Oort Cloud located beyond the orbit of Pluto.comets
The structure of a comet is considered to be like a large, ____, or a mass of frozen ice and rock.dirty snowball
Water is found as a solid, liquid, and gas on ____.Earth
Planets formed from ____ left over from the formation of the Sun at the center of the cloud.gas, ice and dust
Venus and Earth both experience a ____ because of heat trapped by their atmospheres.greenhouse effect
Be able to name each planet.a. Mercury
b. Venus
c. Earth
d. Mars
e. Jupiter
f. Saturn
g. Uranus
h. Neptune
I. Pluto
Most ancient astronomers thought that all celestial objects revolved around ____________________.Earth
The _________________________ consists of the sun, eight planets and their moons, and several kinds of smaller objects.solar system
Mars’s atmosphere is mostly _________________________.carbon dioxide
Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is a(n) _________________________ larger than Earth.storm
A meteoroid that hits Earth’s surface is called a(n) ____________________.meteorite
Venus experiences an intense greenhouse effect.True
Galileo discovered that the orbits in which planets move around the Sun are elliptical.False
A “shooting star,” or meteor, is actually a meteoroid that burns up in Earth’s atmosphereTrue
The Oort cloud is a large collection of comets that surrounds the solar system.True
The outer planets are small, rocky planets with iron cores.False
Essay 1.
What observations helped Galileo to accept Copernicus’ theory that the planets revolve around the sun?
Galileo observed that the moons of Jupiter revolved around Jupiter and not Earth. This showed that not everything revolved around Earth. He knew that Venus is always seen close to the sun and observed that Venus has a full set of phases. This could not occur if Earth was at the center of the system of planets.
Essay 2.
Describe how the solar system probably formed.
The solar system began as a giant cloud of gas and dust. Under the pull of gravity, the cloud shrank to form a spinning disk. Gas in the center of the disk collapsed to form the sun. The remaining gas and dust formed the planets and other objects in the solar system.
Essay 3.
How are Earth and Venus similar? How is Venus different from Earth?
Earth and Venus are similar in size, density, and internal structure. However, Venus rotates very slowly from east to west. Earth rotates much more quickly from west to east. Venus has a thick atmosphere that is mostly carbon dioxide. Earth’s atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen. Because of its atmosphere, and because Venus is closer to the sun, Venus is much hotter than Earth. Unlike Venus, Earth has liquid water on much of its surface.