Race Ap Human Geography

Ch.5 AP Human Geography Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality Vocab

gendersocial differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differences- that is, what is considered “feminine” or “masculine”- vary greatly over time and space
identitydefined by geographer Gillian Rose as “how we make sense of ourselves”; how people see themselves at different scales
identifying againstconstructing an identity by first defining the “other” and then defining ourselves as “not the other”
racea categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biological differences (especially skin color) are more important than others (e. g., height, etc.), even though the latter might have more significance in terms of human activity. With its roots in sixteenth-century England, the term is closely associated with European colonialism because of the impact of that development on global understandings of racial differences
racismfrequently referred to as a system or attitude toward visible differences in individuals; is an ideology of difference that ascribes (predominantly negative) significance and meaning to culturally, socially, and politically constructed ideas based on phenotypical features
residential segregationdefined by geographers Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of an urban environment
invasion and successionprocess by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups. For example, in the early twentieth century, Puerto Ricans “invaded” the immigrant Jewish neighborhood of East Harlem and successfully took over the neighborhood or “succeeded” the immigrant Jewish population as the dominant immigrant group in the neighborhood
sense of placestate of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
ethnicityaffiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture
spacedefined by Dorean Massey and Pat Jess as “social relations stretched out”
placethe fourth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; uniqueness of a location
genderedin terms of place, whether the place is designed for or claimed by men or women
dowry deathsin the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride
barriozationdefined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood; referring to barrio, the Spanish word for neighborhood
apartheida legal system that was the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas