Speech, Advanced Cognition, And Complex Material Culture

Ch 10 Early Hominin Origins and Evolution

Sahelanthropus tchadensisThe earliest pre-australopithecine species found in central Africa with possible evidence of bipedalism.
7-4The pre-australopithecines lived between ___ mya.
4-1The australopithecines lived between ___ mya.
Speech/advanced cognition/complex material cultureThese three things do not define a hominin: (They evolved long after the first hominins appeared.)
bipedal locomotion/nonhoning chewingHominins have two obligate behaviors:
BipedalismThis is the foundational behavior of the Hominini.
millionsBipedalism preceded most attributes associated with humans and with human behavior by ____ of years.
foramen magnum/s shaped spine/short ilium/long legs/inward knees/longitudinal foot arch/non opposable halluxThe 7 distinguishing characteristics in the skeleton that are associated with bipedalism:
Foramen magnumThe position of this reflects the fact that the hominin carries its head atop its body.
shortened ilium and pelvisThis part of hominin anatomy generally reflects changes that coincide with the shift from quadrupedalism to bipedalism.
stabilize the hipThe reason that the gluteal muscles were reconfigured.
Long legsBipeds have distinctively ___ ___ which provide the ability to stride and to do so with minimal energy.
inward kneesThis helps to place the feet below the body’s center of gravity.
non opposable halluxThis reflects the use of this digit in helping propel the body forward.
longitudinal archThis acts as a kind of shock absorber, allowing the foot to sustain the demanding forces of body weight.
tips/backsHominin canines wear on the ___ instead of the ___.
crushHumans ___ food more than apes do.
slicingApes use their molars more for ___, reflecting their plant-heavy diet.
thick/thinHominins have evolved ___ enamel, while apes have evolved ___ enamel, reflecting their different diets.
9 myaWhen did humans and chimps split?
HomininsThe human side of the evolutionary tree, after humans and chimps split.
blunt nonprojecting canine/small canine/no diastema/wear on canines and third premolars/cusps on lower third premolar equal sizeThe 5 distinguishing characteristics that reflect nonhoning chewing:
Orrorin TugenensisA pre-australopithecine species found in East Africa that displayed some of the earliest evidence of bipedalism.
Ardipithecus KadabbaAn early pre-australopithecine species from the late Miocene to the early Pliocene; shows evidence of a preihoning complex, a primitive trait intermediate between apes and modern humans.
Ardipithecus ramidusA later pre-australopithecine species from the late Miocene to the early Pliocene; shows evidence of both bipedalism and arboreal activity but no indication of the primitive perihoning complex.
Australopithecus anamensisThe oldest species of australopithecine from East Africa and a likely ancestor to Au. afarensis.
Australopithecus afarensisAn early australopithecine from East Africa that had a brain size equivalent to a modern chimpanzee’s and is thought to be a direct human ancestor.
Australopithecus platyopsAn australopithecine from East Africa that had a unique flat face and was contemporaneous with Au. afarensis.
KenyanthropusSynonym for Australopithecus.
Australopithecus garhiA late australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. africanus and Au. aethiopicus and was the likely ancestor to the Homo lineage.
Oldowan complexThe stone tool culture associated with H. Habilis and, possibly, Au. garhi, including primitive chopper tools.
Lower PaleolithicThe oldest part of the first stone tools were created and used, beginning with the Oldowan Complex.
Australopithecus aethiopicusAn early robust australopithecine from East Africa, with the hallmark physical traits of large teeth, large face, and massive muscle attachments on the cranium.
Australopithecus boiseiA later robust autralopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. robustus and Au. africanus and had the robust cranial traits, including large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
Australopithecus africanusA gracile australopithecine from South Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. aethiopicus, Au. garhi, and Au. boisei and was likely ancestral to Au. robustus.
Australopithecus robustusA robust australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. afarensis, was contemporaneous with Au. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
Homo habilisThe earliest Homo species, a possible descendant of Au. garhi and an ancestor to H. erectus;
2.6The earliest known tools date to about ___ mya.
2The earliest evidence of brain expansion dates to sometime after ___ mya.
2Hunting likely didn’t begin until after ___ mya.
Patchy Forest HypothesisThe idea that bipedalism arose in areas where the forest was becoming fragmented, a process that began toward the end of the Miocene.
Provisioning hypothesisThe idea that bipedalism arose so that fathers could provide food and protection to mothers.
HominoidsHominins evolved out of ____.
pre-australopithecinesThese represent the first recognizable ancestors of the lineage leading to humans.
Sahelanthropus tchadensisThe earliest pre-autralopithecuine.
Miocene/plioceneHumans originated in Africa during the early ___ and late ___.
PrimitiveThe brain of Sahelanthropus tchadensis was ____.
Ardipithecus ramidusThis is one of the fossils that have transformed our understanding of the earliest period of human evolution.
Ardipithecus ramidusThis discovery provides compelling evidence that the first hominins did not evolve in the open grasslands.
Ardipithecus ramidusThis species was adapted to life in the trees and to life on the ground.
Sahelanthropus tchadensisKey features: Skull and teeth found. Tiny brain. Skull like apes’ with massive browridge. Lived in forest setting.
Ardipithecus KadabbaKey features: Skull, teeth, postcranial bones found. Small brain. Perihoning. Thin enamel. Curved foot phalanges. Capable of bipedalism. Less than 1 m tall. Lived in wooded setting.
Orrorin tugenensisKey features: Postcranial bones found. Likely bipedalism. Hand phalanx curved like apes’. Less than 1 m tall. Lived in forest setting.
Ardipithecus RamidusKey features: Skull, teeth, postcranial bones found. Small brain. No perihoning. Thin enamel. Curved foot phalanges. Capable of bipedalism. 120 cm tall. Lived in wooded setting.
Ardipithecus ramidusThe only hominin with thin enamel.
AustralopithecinesCompared with other mammals, ____ didn’t vary greatly.
AustralopithecinesAs a group, ___ had a small brain, small canines, large premolars, and large molars.
AnamensisThe oldest australopithecine species.
LucyOne of the most significant fossils: 40% complete skeleton of an adult female Au. afarensis, found in East Africa.
Au. afarensisThis was an efficient, habitual biped that spent most of its time on the ground.
Au. afarensisThey lived in various habitats, including forests, woodlands, and open country.
nondivergent big toeOne of the most important characteristics of the Laetoli footprints is the ___ ___ ___.
locomotionAustralopithecines were highly diverse, including in their ___.
HomoThe genus Australopithecus evolved into two branches, one of which became the genus ___.
Australopithecus garhiA late australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. africanus and Au. aethiopicus and was the likely ancestor to the Homo lineage.
Au. garhiIts teethe were larger than the earlier australopithecines’. Like Au. afarensis, beneath the nose the face had a primitive projection and a small brain.
Au. garhiThe first hominin with a more humanlike ratio of arm length to leg length.
Au. garhiThis primates features and its age, 2.5 mya, suggest that it was ancestral to Homo.
Oldowan complexThe stone tool culture associated with H. habilis and, possibly, Au. garhi, including primitive chopper tools.
Lower PaleolithicThe oldest part of the period during which the first stone tools were created and used. beginning with the Oldowan Complex.
Oldowan complexThe first hominin culture and the earliest culture of the Lower Paleolithic.
PleistoceneMuch of the record of early stone tool use is early ____.
insects/meatEarly hominins most likely ate:
Australopithecus sedibaA late species of australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. africanus, was a contemporary of Au. robustus, and expresses anatomical features found in Australopithecus and in Homo.
Homo habilisThis showed the first substantial increase in brain size and was the first species definitively associated with the production and use of stone tools.
bipedalismUsing tools and toolmaking is an adaptation by hominins linked to:
femurEvidence indicating that Orrorin Tugenensis was bipedal comes mainly from which part of the skeleton?
In addition to a larger brain, early Homo species have smaller faces and smaller teethIn an argument with your parents, they claim that the only difference between australopithecines and early Homo species is that the latter had a bigger brain. You argue that there are other differences, such as that….
on the groundArdi was adapted to life in the trees and:
included the now extinct descendants of Au. afarensisBeginning more than 3 mya, at least two lineages of hominin emerged, one that led to the genus Homo and one that:
Au. afarensis____ arose around 3.5 mya and gave rise to at least two branches of hominins– later australopithecines and the genus Homo.
monogamy and food provisioning created the necessity for bipedalismOwen Lovejoy’s provisioning hypothesis proposes that:
bipedalismThe foundational behavior of hominins was:
had longer legs relative to arm length than other australopithecinesAu. garhi has be proposed as an ancestor for Homo mainly because it:
patchy forestThe _______ hypothesis about hominin bipedalism states that energy-efficient walking on two legs arose so that hominins could search for food that was dispersed s a result of climatic changes at the end of the Miocene.
Au. garhiThe Oldowan tool complex is attributed to __________, making that hominin species the first to use tools.
crushingHumans use their molars for:
Au. aethiopicusRobust australopithecine species include:
Au. anamensisThe oldest australopithecine species is:
eating foods requiring heavy chewingAu. robustus’s large masticatory complex (large molars, face, and muscles) indicate an adaptation to:
do not define a homininSpeech, advanced cognition, and complex material culture:
animal bones with cutmarksFossils attributed to Au. garhi were found at the Bouri site, in Ethiopia, along with:
one was a climber and the other a bipedTwo types of australopithecines were using two different types of locomotion in E Africa:
larger faces/smaller front teeth/larger back teethRobust Au.’s differ from earlier Au.’s in their:
they use spoken languageHumans differ from apes because
nondivergent big toe/double arch/ *one more, look up in bookThe Laetoli footprints demonstrate that the foot of Au. afarensis was humanlike in having a:
Au. afarensisThe best-known australopithecine, represented by hundreds of fossils and dozens of individuals found mostly at Laetoli and Hadar, is:
modified honing dentition/primitive apeline traits/small brain sizeA preaustralopithecine most likely has the following characteristics:
Rodman/McHenryThey proposed the Patchy Forest Hypothesis.
Cladistic/phylogeneticIn this classification system, Chimps and Humans are similar to siblings, instead of cousins.
7 mya/chadS. tchadensis live around ____, and was discovered in ____.
male-male aggressionApes have a higher level of ___ ___, which is reflected in their larger canines.
S. tchadensisAnatomies: small brain, non honing chewing. massive browridge, bipedal.
BipedalismThis was the first thing to develop in Hominins.
5.5 myaNon honing chewing developed around ____.
Traditional/gradisticIn this classification system, Chimps are more like Gorillas and Orangs than like Humans.
3.5 myaMaterial culture (tool making) developed about ____.
1 myaHunting developed around ___.
HuntingDarwin’s theory for why bipedalism evolved was based on ____, although it has been proved incorrect.
7 myaUpright walking developed about ____.
ArdipithecusThe last of the pre-astralopithcines is ____.
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OrrorinAnatomies: bipedal based on femur, tree climber based on hands, partially honing canines.
sahelanthropus/orrorin/ardipithecusThe three pre-australopithecines:
OrrorinThey lived around 6 mya in the forest, and were found in the Tugen Hills, Kenya.