Standard Operating Procedure Ap Gov

AP Gov Ch 15

1) Each bureaucratic agency is created initially by
A) constitutional provision.
B) the president.
C) the bureaucracy itself.
D) Congress.
E) order of a federal court.
D
2) Which of the following statements about bureaucracies is FALSE?
A) Bureaucratic power extends to every corner of American economic and social life.
B) Bureaucracies are scarcely hinted at in the Constitution.
C) Nothing better illustrates the complexity of modern government than its massivebureaucracies.
D) Each bureaucratic agency is created by the president.
E) How to manage and control bureaucracies is a central problem of democraticgovernment.
D
3) Which of the following is TRUE about the federal bureaucracy?
A) Most federal bureaucrats work in Washington, D.C.
B) The state and local governments have far more employees than the federal bureaucracy.
C) The size of the federal bureaucracy has grown dramatically over the past twenty years.
D) Most Americans are dissatisfied with their encounters with bureaucrats.
E) all of the above
B
4) Studies have found that most Americans
A) dislike bureaucrats.
B) are indifferent about bureaucracies and bureaucrats.
C) are satisfied with the help received from bureaucrats.
D) actually like bureaucracies.
E) want the government bureaucracy dismantled.
C
5) Which of the following statements about the size of bureaucracies is FALSE?
A) State and local public employees far outnumber civilian federal government employees.
B) As a percentage of America’s total work force, federal government employment has beengrowing.
C) Almost all the growth in the number of public employees has occurred in state and localgovernments.
D) Federal government employment amounts to about three percent of all civilian jobs.
E) None of the above; all of the above statements are TRUE.
B
6) As a percentage of the total work force, federal government employment is
A) rapidly becoming greater than employment in the private sector.
B) greater than state and local government employment.
C) rising.
D) declining.
E) stabilizing.
D
7) The classic conception of a bureaucracy was advanced by ________, who argued that thebureaucracy was a “rational” way for a modern society to conduct its business.
A) Max Weber
B) Thomas Jefferson
C) John Locke
D) Charles L. Schultze
E) James Madison
A
8) In addition to a hierarchical authority structure, Max Weber argued that a bureaucracyinvolves all of the following EXCEPT
A) extensive rules.
B) an incentive system.
C) task specialization.
D) the merit principle.
E) hierarchical authority structure.
B
9) The Weberian theory of bureaucracies views them in the most positive light as
A) acquisitive.
B) inefficient.
C) monopolistic.
D) hierarchical.
E) democratic.
D
10) The Weberian model depicts a bureaucracy as
A) fundamentally dangerous to a democratic society.
B) inefficient, primarily concerned with maximizing its budget, and largely responsible forthe growth of modern government.
C) wasteful, bloated, over-staffed, over-paid and arrogant.
D) a well-organized machine with plenty of working but hierarchical parts.
E) ambling and groping, affected by chance, and largely operating by a loosely run style oftrial and error.
D
11) The Weberian model views bureaucracies as
A) promoting good monopolies.
B) loosely organized and loosely run.
C) largely self-serving.
D) efficient and necessary.
E) hindering democracy.
D
12) Which of the following would NOT be considered part of the Weberian model of bureaucracy?
A) task specialization
B) decentralized authority structure
C) extensive rules
D) impersonality
E) A and D only
B
13) Which of the following statements about bureaucracies is FALSE?
A) Bureaucracies are simply a way of organizing people to perform work.
B) The vast majority of tasks carried out by governments are noncontroversial.
C) Bureaucracies receive very little credit when they function well.
D) Government bureaucracies have been shown to be less efficient and effective than privatebureaucracies.
E) Bureaucracies are prevalent in all levels of government.
D
14) The ________ employs about one -fourth of all federal civilian workers, more than any otherdepartment or agency.
A) Department of Education
B) Department of Health and Human Services
C) Department of Defense
D) Department of Justice
E) Department of Labor
C
15) There are roughly ________ civilian and military federal government employees
A) 800,000
B) 3,000,000
C) 2,100,000
D) 4,000,000
E) 500,000
D
16) As a whole, the permanent bureaucracy is
A) nearly all white, male, and well-paid.
B) overwhelmingly African American, female, and not so well-paid.
C) more broadly representative of the American people than legislators, judges, orpresidential appointees.
D) better paid than are similar jobs in the private sector.
E) a reflection of participatory politics, since most government workers are hired throughthe patronage system.
C
17) As a whole, the permanent federal bureaucracy is
A) less diverse in terms of the type of jobs than the private sector.
B) dominated by white males.
C) more broadly representative of the American people than the rest of the federalgovernment.
D) composed of an American elite.
E) now employing 15 percent of the American work force.
C
18) ________ is a hiring and promotion system based on knowing the right people, working in anelection campaign, making large political donations, and/or having the right connections towin jobs with the government.
A) The patronage system
B) The federal Civil Service
C) The bureaucracy
D) The golden gate
E) Administrative discretion
A
19) Patronage is a hiring and promotion system based on
A) knowing the right people.
B) civil service exams.
C) talent and skill.
D) the Pendelton Act.
E) the merit principle.
A
20) Until the late-nineteenth century, most government employees got their jobs through
A) the patronage system.
B) the merit principle.
C) hereditary preferences.
D) civil service testing.
E) a lottery system.
A
21) The ________ Act was passed partly as a memorial to the memory of President James Garfield,who was assassinated in 1881.
A) Pendleton Civil Service
B) Treason
C) Voting Rights
D) Hatch
E) Interstate Commerce
A
22) The Pendleton Act established the
A) patronage system.
B) federal civil service.
C) Office of Management and Budget.
D) plum book.
E) Interstate Commerce Commission.
B
23) The rationale for all civil service systems is based on
A) patronage.
B) the merit principle.
C) the Hatch Act.
D) the plum book.
E) voluntary service.
B
24) The Hatch Act, passed in 1940,
A) established the patronage system for federal employment.
B) prohibited the president from firing the heads of independent executive agencies.
C) prohibits federal civil service employees from active participation in partisan politics.
D) required the publication of the plum book.
E) established the federal civil service.
C
25) Once hired into the federal bureaucracy, a person is assigned a ________ rating, whichdetermines one’s salary range.
A) Federal Register
B) Weber
C) General Schedule
D) step ladder
E) plum book
C
26) The federal civil service was created by
A) Article IV of the Constitution.
B) an executive order of President Arthur.
C) the Office of Management and Budget.
D) the merit principle.
E) the Pendleton Act.
E
27) The rationale for the civil service rests on the
A) goal of centralizing government employment at the federal level.
B) desire to create a nonpartisan government service and promotion on the basis of merit.
C) General Schedule rating system for patronage appointees.
D) the need to separate military institutions from civilian institutions to prevent unduemilitary influence.
E) need for job replacements when a new party comes to power.
B
28) Federal employees are prohibited from active participation in partisan politics through the
A) Twenty-fifth Amendment.
B) Pendleton Act.
C) Supreme Court ruling in Democratic National Committee v. Hayes.
D) Hatch Act.
E) merit system.
D
29) Which of the following is a legitimate criticism of the federal civil service?
A) Firing incompetents is extremely difficult.
B) Workers are not protected against political firings.
C) It does not operate on the merit principle.
D) Too many federal civil servants are actively involved in partisan politics.
E) all of the above
A
30) Which of the following would be included in a plum book?
A) doctors at a Veteran’s Administration hospital
B) postal carriers
C) the phone numbers of a Congress member’s sex partners
D) Senate committee chairs
E) Cabinet secretaries
E
31) Which of the following statements about the hiring and firing of civil servants is FALSE?
A) The Office of Personnel Management has elaborate rules about hiring, promotion, andfiring of civil servants.
B) The top of the civil service is composed of about 9,000 members of the Senior ExecutiveService.
C) Once hired, civil servants are assigned a General Schedule ranging from GS-1 to GS-18.
D) Due to the merit system, it is easy to fire incompetent civil servants.
E) none of the above
D
32) The plum book lists
A) all federal contracts available for bid.
B) top federal jobs available by Presidential appointment.
C) all civil service jobs above GS-12.
D) job openings in the prestigious Office of Personnel Management.
E) appeals filed with the Merit Systems Protection Board.
B
33) Which of the following statements about plum book appointees is FALSE?
A) Most presidents seek appointees with sympathy for similar policy positions.
B) Ambassadorship appointments often go to large campaign contributors.
C) Plum book appointees are often instrumental in changing and reforming their agencies.
D) Presidents often consider sex, region, and race in making plum book appointments.
E) none of the above
C
34) Which of the following is NOT true about presidential appointees to bureaucracies?
A) They often do not know their own agency subordinates very well, much less people inother agencies.
B) They must be recommended by the Office of Personnel Management’s “rule of three.”
C) As political appointees, they are often unaccustomed to the administrative routines,budget cycles, and legal complexities of their agencies or departments.
D) They tend to spend fewer years in their positions than those in the civil service.
E) none of the above
B
35) According to Hugh Heclo, the plum book system of recruiting federal employees tends toresult in the appointment of
A) talented experts with proven party loyalty.
B) people with access to the Internet, but not necessarily the most qualified people.
C) senior civil servants to sensitive posts.
D) administrators who do not stay long enough in their appointed position to be effective.
E) large numbers of women and minorities, just as it was intended to do.
D
36) Which Cabinet department is charged with overseeing the nation’s national resources?
A) Homeland Security
B) Environmental Protection Agency
C) Defense
D) State
E) Interior
E
37) The real work of a Cabinet department is done
A) by the entire Cabinet.
B) by the president’s staff.
C) by the undersecretaries.
D) by the secretary.
E) in the bureaus.
E
38) The largest federal agency based on dollars spent is the
A) Department of Defense.
B) Department of Justice.
C) State Department.
D) Department of Health and Human Services.
E) Social Security Administration.
E
39) Which of these is the newest government agency?
A) Drug Enforcement Agency
B) Social Security Administration
C) Department of Health and Human Services
D) Drug Interdiction Agency
E) Cyberspace Commission
B
40) The Cabinet department that has the largest budget is the Department of
A) Health and Human Services.
B) Defense.
C) Commerce.
D) the Treasury.
E) Education.
A
41) Bureaus in the federal bureaucracy are also known as all of the following EXCEPT
A) an administration.
B) an office.
C) a department.
D) a service.
E) none of the above
C
42) The Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal Reserve Board are examples of
A) dependent presidential boards.
B) independent regulatory agencies.
C) government corporations.
D) Cabinet departments.
E) independent executive agencies.
B
43) Which of the following statements about independent regulatory commissions is FALSE?
A) Regulatory commission members cannot be fired by the president.
B) Regulatory commissions consist of five to ten members.
C) Regulatory commission members are appointed by the president and confirmed by theSenate.
D) Regulatory commission members may not be drawn from the ranks of present or formeremployees of the regulated industry.
E) none of the above
D
44) An independent regulatory agency is governed by
A) a small commission, usually with five to ten members, appointed by the president andsubject to presidential firing.
B) members of the Senior Executive Service of the federal civil service.
C) a small commission, usually with five to ten members, appointed by the president forfixed terms.
D) a single executive appointed by and removable by the president.
E) a single executive appointed by the Senate committee responsible for the agency’soversight.
C
45) The parts of the federal bureaucracy with responsibility for different sectors of the economy,and making and enforcing rules designed to protect the public interest, are the
A) independent executive agencies.
B) independent regulatory agencies.
C) commercial ministries.
D) government corporations.
E) Cabinet departments.
B
46) The General Services Administration and the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationare examples of
A) government corporations.
B) independent regulatory agencies.
C) Cabinet departments.
D) presidential administrative agencies.
E) independent executive agencies.
E
47) Independent regulatory agencies have
A) complete independence from the president, but their policymakers are appointed byCongress.
B) powerful rule-making, dispute-settling, and enforcement authority.
C) no real enforcement power any more, and remain today as part of the federalgovernment only in a ceremonial role.
D) no formal ties to either the president or the Congress.
E) governing commissions composed of long-time federal Civil Service employees.
B
48) Amtrak and the United States Postal Service are examples of
A) government corporations.
B) independent executive agencies.
C) Cabinet departments.
D) executive commercial agencies.
E) independent regulatory agencies.
A
49) Government corporations
A) operate an airline, manufacture steel, and provide health insurance.
B) provide services and charge for them.
C) tend to be captured by interest groups.
D) are independent regulatory agencies.
E) sell stock and pay dividends.
B
50) An obstacle to the successful implementation of public policy is
A) the failure of Congress to pass authorizing legislation.
B) the over-specialization of civil service employees.
C) competition between the private and public sectors.
D) unclear policy goals and poorly designed policies.
E) all of the above
D
51) Once a policy decision has been made, such as by passing a legislative act or issuing anexecutive order, the bureaucracy is responsible for
A) its ratification.
B) its implementation.
C) its deregulation.
D) funding it.
E) judging its merits.
B
52) The main job of federal bureaucrats is to
A) advise the president and Cabinet on internal affairs.
B) countervail the power of private corporations, especially monopolies.
C) compete with the private sector for monopoly power.
D) protect the interests of their constituencies.
E) implement and regulate government policies.
E
53) Creating new agencies, developing guidelines, and coordinating resources to achieve a policygoal is called
A) bureaucratization.
B) regulation.
C) implementation.
D) actualization.
E) policymaking.
C
54) Which of the following is NOT a reason that policy implementation sometimes breaks down inthe federal bureaucracy?
A) fragmentation of responsibilities
B) lack of standard operating procedures
C) lack of clarity in the original policy decision
D) faulty program design
E) lack of resources
B
55) Vigorous disputes over the implementation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972in regard to funding for women’s athletic programs arose primarily due to
A) faulty program design.
B) lack of clarity in the original policy decision.
C) adherence to administrative routine.
D) fragmentation of responsibilities.
E) all of the above
B
56) Section 844 of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
A) was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
B) specifically prohibits sex discrimination in college sports.
C) was supported by most colleges and universities.
D) was vaguely written, eventually resulting in scores of court cases.
E) was interpreted by Congress to exclude college football.
D
57) A major complaint of the Food and Drug Administration is
A) its lack of clarity.
B) the fragmentation of responsibilities.
C) that there is no administrative discretion.
D) that too much food is contaminated by dirt and rodents.
E) the shortage of personnel.
E
58) Which of the following is NOT true about standard operating procedures?
A) They provide routine rules to help bureaucrats make numerous everyday decisions.
B) Each federal department and agency has a plum book which lists its standard operatingprocedures.
C) They can sometimes be so routinized that they are difficult to change even in the face ofchanging circumstances.
D) They are referred to as “red tape” by those who find them burdensome.
E) They are used by street-level bureaucrats.
B
59) Standard operating procedures
A) usually prove to be unjust and discriminatory when followed to the letter.
B) save time and bring uniformity to complex organizations.
C) were waived by the Reagan Administration in an effort to make the bureaucracy moreflexible and customize the solutions to problems.
D) give authority to administrative actors to select among various responses to a givenproblem.
E) are frustrating and inappropriate in addressing most situations.
B
60) Standard operating procedures accomplish all of the following EXCEPT
A) bring uniformity to complex organizations.
B) save time.
C) make personnel interchangeable.
D) reduce red tape.
E) treat citizens equally, regardless of class or race.
D
61) ________ is the authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a givenproblem.
A) Standard operating procedure
B) Administrative discretion
C) Administrators’ disposition
D) Executive power
E) Deregulation
B
62) Standard operating procedures become frustrating to citizens and obstacles to action whenthey
A) do not directly apply to a particular situation.
B) slow bureaucratic responses to citizens’ needs.
C) are not specifically codified.
D) transfer personnel to different posts.
E) are not closely followed.
A
63) The authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem iscalled
A) policy implementation.
B) selective management.
C) the merit principle.
D) the definition of alternatives.
E) administrative discretion.
E
64) Administrative discretion is greatest when
A) rules and regulations are not written down.
B) when standard operating procedures are used.
C) an agency has elaborate rules and regulations.
D) a particular agency is the subject of media coverage.
E) rules do not fit a case.
E
65) The Federal Aviation Administration’s protocol for for hijackings assumed that
A) the pilot would be able to radio air traffic controllers and alert them to the problem.
B) the FAA would be able to pinpoint the aircraft involved.
C) there would be enough time for the government to formulate a response.
D) the hijackers would be motivated in part by a desire to stay alive.
E) All of the above
E
66) Those civil service employees who are in constant contact with the public (often a hostile one)and have considerable discretion are known as
A) street-level bureaucrats.
B) routinizers.
C) General Schedule foot soldiers.
D) the Senior Executive Service.
E) civil servants.
A
67) Administrative personnel who exercise discretion, pay attention to routine, and deal directlywith clients,
A) are called street-level bureaucrats.
B) are limited to high-level positions in the administration.
C) implement federal policies.
D) are part of the Senior Executive Service.
E) are usually dismissed for not following standard operating procedures.
A
68) Which of the following would not be considered a street-level bureaucrat?
A) a municipal court judge
B) an assistant secretary in the Department of Transportation
C) a welfare worker
D) a mail carrier who delivers mail exclusively in a high-rise building
E) a police officer
B
69) When bureaucrats are asked to execute orders with which they do not agree,
A) they usually ignore the orders.
B) they are likely to lose their jobs if they do not follow through with the orders.
C) they can file a Conflict Of Interest Form and will be exempted from that duty by theirboss.
D) implementation follows standard operating procedures.
E) slippage is likely to occur between policy decisions and performance.
E
70) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) Bureaucrats are often fired for using too much administrative discretion.
B) Pay raises in the bureaucracy tend to be small and across -the-board.
C) Removing appointed officials may be politically embarrassing to the president.
D) A government agency cannot expand just because it is performing a service effectivelyand efficiently.
E) none of the above
A
71) The diffusion of responsibility within the bureaucracy
A) makes the coordination of policies both time-consuming and difficult.
B) increases administrative discretion.
C) allows for a diversity of opinion thus facilitating effective administration.
D) helps diminish the use of administrative discretion.
E) facilitates the use of inter-bureaucracy standard operating procedures.
A
72) Proposals to reorganize the government in order to solve the problem of bureaucraticfragmentation
A) are often opposed by agencies not wanting to be submerged within a broaderbureaucratic unit.
B) tend to be supported by Republican presidents, who advocate governmentalcentralization.
C) are opposed by congressional committees, fearing they will be given greaterresponsibility to oversee larger and more diverse agencies.
D) are supported by interest groups, who feel they could better control the regulatoryprograms of a reorganized bureaucracy.
E) are supported and opposed for all of these reasons.
A
73) The Voting Rights Act of 1965
A) was very difficult to implement because of the fragmentation of responsibility forimplementing it.
B) was successfully implemented thanks to its clear goal, its clear methods to achieve thegoal, and its lack of bureaucratic fragmentation.
C) failed to achieve its policy goals because of the outright hostility of street -levelbureaucrats.
D) was impossible to implement because of a lack of clarity in the legislation.
E) All but D are true.
B
74) The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was successful for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A) its goal was clear.
B) its implementation was straightforward.
C) the authority of the implementors was plain.
D) it was universally supported.
E) none of the above
D
75) The use of government authority to control or change some practice in the private sector isknown as
A) socialism.
B) regulation.
C) oversight.
D) executive review.
E) public administration.
B
76) The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector iscalled
A) regulation.
B) patronage.
C) administrative discretion.
D) policy implementation.
E) public administration.
A
77) Which of the following statements about government regulation in America is accurate?
A) The Constitution set up only six regulatory agencies; the others have been created withinthe past 100 years or so.
B) The Federal Communications Commission was the first independent regulatory agency.
C) Until 1887, the federal government made almost no regulatory policies and had noregulatory agencies.
D) Regulatory agencies tended to be more popular in the early years of the nation’s history,then grew more controversial during the late-nineteenth century.
E) both A and C
C
78) In the case of Munn v. Illinois, decided in 1877, the United States Supreme Court
A) ruled that states could not impose corporate income taxes.
B) ruled that the Civil Service System was constitutional.
C) outlawed the patronage system.
D) held that government had no right to regulate the business operations of a firm.
E) upheld the right of government to regulate the business operations of a firm.
E
79) Until 1887, the federal government
A) had almost no regulatory policies.
B) was involved only in social regulation.
C) owned and operated most of the major industries in the country.
D) forbade the states from passing regulatory policies.
E) was involved only in economic regulation.
A
80) The Supreme Court case of Munn v. Illinois (1877)
A) declared that regulation was not within the realm of state powers.
B) first established the right to own property as one of the rights of the Bill of Rights.
C) set the precedent for deregulation.
D) upheld the right of government to regulate the business operations of a firm.
E) upheld the constitutionality of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
D
81) Most regulatory agencies adopt specific ________ to carry out a policy, based on what theybelieve was the intended purpose of the specific policy at hand.
A) guidelines
B) iron triangles
C) incentive systems
D) mandates
E) merit principles
A
82) Whatever strategy Congress permits a regulatory agency to use, all regulation contains thefollowing elements EXCEPT
A) some means of enforcing compliance.
B) a grant of power and set of directions from Congress.
C) a set of rules and guidelines by the regulatory agency itself.
D) an incentive system to maximize performance by those regulated.
E) none of the above
D
83) All regulations contain each of the following elements EXCEPT
A) a grant of power and set of directions from Congress
B) some means of enforcing compliance with congressional goals and agency regulations
C) presidential oversight and control of enforcement
D) a set of rules and guidelines by the regulatory agency itself
E) All of these are elements of the regulatory process.
C
84) When Congress passes regulatory legislation for which it has established goals, it then
A) grants power to regulatory agencies to develop guidelines and enforce compliance.
B) assigns responsibility for administration to regulatory agencies and responsibility forenforcement to the courts.
C) establishes the guidelines that regulatory agencies must implement.
D) grants interest groups the power to develop the rules governing the new policy.
E) authorizes the president to use his administrative discretion to implement the legislation.
A
85) One proposed solution to the “problem” of the proliferation of regulatory agencies and policieshas been
A) deregulation.
B) deproliferation.
C) budget cuts.
D) standard operating procedures.
E) the incentive system.
A
86) Deregulation has resulted, at least in part, in each of the following EXCEPT
A) environmental damage.
B) the proliferation of government agencies.
C) competitive airline fares.
D) an expensive bailout of the savings and loan industry.
E) less government oversight in some key areas.
B
87) Which of the following is NOT an accusation made against the regulatory system?
A) Excessive regulation contributed to the savings and loan industry disaster of the 1980s.
B) If the producer is faced with expensive regulations, costs will inevitably be passed alongto the consumer in the form of higher prices.
C) Regulations do not always work well, and they simply create massive regulatorybureaucracies.
D) Other nations have laxer regulations on pollution, worker safety, and other businesspractices, thus American exports often cost more.
E) All of these have been criticisms of regulation.
A
88) Each of the following is a criticism of regulation EXCEPT that it
A) lowers prices.
B) does not work.
C) distorts market forces.
D) is too complex.
E) gives bureaucrats too much power.
A
89) Most of the government is composed of
A) regulators.
B) lawyers.
C) bureaucrats.
D) elected legislators.
E) politicians.
C
90) Executive orders are issued by
A) independent regulatory agencies.
B) any federal agency or department.
C) Congress.
D) members of the Senior Executive Service.
E) the president.
E
91) Which of the following is NOT a method a president can use to control the bureaucracy?
A) issue executive orders or more informal requests
B) rewrite statutes to make instructions clearer as to how policies are intended
C) appoint people to head an agency who share the president’s goals and strategies
D) tinker with an agency’s recommended budget
E) request a congressional oversight hearing
B
92) Which of the following statements about Congress and the bureaucracy is FALSE?
A) Bureaucracies can help Congress find answers to policy problems.
B) Bureaucracies help provide services to constituents.
C) Members of Congress often find a big bureaucracy congenial.
D) Congress has found it easy to control the bureaucracy.
E) none of the above
D
93) Congress tries to control the bureaucracy through each of the following EXCEPT
A) rewriting legislation.
B) influencing the appointment of agency heads.
C) holding hearings.
D) issuing congressional orders.
E) both A and B
D
94) Congress tries to control the bureaucracy through
A) rewriting laws and budgets and holding hearings.
B) deregulation.
C) the use of executive orders and appointments.
D) the creation of “iron triangles.”
E) all of the above
A
95) To limit bureaucratic discretion and make its instructions clearer, Congress can
A) deregulate.
B) write new and more detailed legislation.
C) hold congressional hearings.
D) reregulate.
E) threaten to cut an agency’s budget.
B
96) As the oversight powers of Congress in regard to the bureaucracy have become morevigorous,
A) Congress is increasingly the policy-implementation branch of government.
B) it has become easier to rein in the bureaucracy.
C) they have also become more fragmented.
D) “iron triangles” have weakened considerably.
E) the amount of government corruption has decreased dramatically.
C
97) A major problem for presidents and Congress in controlling bureaucracies is the existence of
A) the plum book.
B) Supreme Court rulings curbing the scope of their oversight.
C) “iron triangles.”
D) standard operating procedures.
E) the incentive system.
C
98) An “iron triangle” is also referred to as
A) a government corporation.
B) a reverse diagonal.
C) a subgovernment.
D) the alphabet soup of American government.
E) an issue network.
C
99) An “iron triangle” consists of
A) representatives of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the government.
B) the president, the head of a relevant congressional committee, and the head of anyregulatory agency.
C) a bureaucratic agency, an interest group, and a congressional committee orsubcommittee.
D) the metal stamp used to certify that the president has approved a new regulation and itnow takes legal effect.
E) those favoring regulation X, those opposing regulation X, and the regulatory agency incharge of overseeing X.
C
100) A(n) ________ consists of an administrative agency, an interest group, and a congressionalcommittee or subcommittee.
A) issue network
B) independent executive agency
C) triumvirate
D) administrative discretion triad
E) “iron triangle”
E
101) “Iron triangles” face challenges from a growing number of
A) street-level bureaucrats.
B) subgovernments.
C) plastics and softer metals.
D) administrative discretions.
E) issue networks.
E
102) Issue networks are
A) a growing participatory force in bureaucratic decision making whose members’ interestin issues is intellectual or emotional rather than material.
B) the same as “iron triangles.”
C) the relatively new television stations that specialize in political coverage.
D) subject to standard operating procedures.
E) two or more agencies that share regulatory power when a policy or regulation affectsmore than one regulatory body.
A
103) Subgovernments promote
A) centralization of authority.
B) strong executive branch control of policymaking.
C) the control of the bureaucracy by Congress.
D) decentralized and fragmented policymaking.
E) presidential control of bureaucratic discretion.
D
104) A group of participants in bureaucratic policymaking with technical policy expertise andintellectual and emotional commitment to the issue is called
A) a government corporation.
B) an “iron triangle”.
C) a subgovernment.
D) an issue network.
E) a vested cohort.
D
105) Which of the following is NOT an area in which an “iron triangle” has controlled federal policyover the past several decades?
A) nuclear power policy
B) environmental policy
C) pesticide policy
D) smoking & tobacco policy
E) none of the above
B
106) Which of the following is NOT true about “iron triangles”?
A) They present tremendous difficulties for Congress and the president when they attemptto control the bureaucracy.
B) They add a strong decentralizing and fragmenting element to the government’spolicymaking process.
C) They are also known as subgovernments.
D) They are indestructible.
E) none of the above
D
107) “Iron triangles” are composed of
A) primarily iron, but also metallic, alloys.
B) bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees.
C) urban bureaucracies, state bureaucracies, and federal bureaucracies.
D) congressional committees, state governments, and bureaucratic agencies.
E) senators, governors, and department heads.
B
108) In 1887, Congress established the first regulatory agency, the ________, and charged it withregulating the railroads, their prices, and their services to farmers.
A) Department of Transportation
B) Railroad Commission
C) American Railway Union
D) Federal Trade Commission
E) Interstate Commerce Commission
E
109) Which of the following statements about bureaucracies and the scope of government isFALSE?
A) When the president and Congress chose to deregulate certain areas of the economy orcut taxes, the bureaucracy prevented them from doing so.
B) The federal bureaucracy has actually shrunk in size relative to the population it serves.
C) The bureaucracy is now expected to play an active role in dealing with social andeconomic problems.
D) The federal bureaucracy has not grown over the past two generations.
E) none of the above
A
1) Each bureaucratic agency is created by Congress, which sets its budget and writes the basicpolicies it is to administer.TRUE
2) Most federal bureaucrats work in Washington, D.C., or the D.C. metropolitan area.FALSE
3) Over the past two generations, the federal bureaucracy has shrunk in size relative to thepopulation it serves.TRUE
4) Bureaucracies are a little like referees: When they work well, no one gives them much credit,but when they work poorly, everyone calls them unfair, incompetent, or inefficient.TRUE
5) Scholars have demonstrated that government bureaucracies are efficient and effective thanprivate bureaucracies.FALSE
6) The Department of Health and Human Services employs the largest number of civilianworkers in the federal bureaucracy.FALSE
7) Altogether, the Department of Defense employs about one-half of federal civilian workers inaddition to the 1.5 million men and women in uniform.FALSE
8) The Hatch Act of 1940 prohibits civil service employees from active participation in partisanpolitics.TRUE
9) The Federal Trade Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the federalgovernment which regulates the railroad and trucking industries.FALSE
10) Commission members of independent regulatory commissions can be fired by the president.FALSE
11) The government established Amtrak as the government corporation providing passengerrailroad service when the private passenger railroads became a sick industry some years ago.TRUE
12) The General Service Administration (GSA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration are all examples of regulatory agencies.FALSE
13) Section 844 of Title IX of the Education Act of 1972 is an example of clarity in legislative goals.FALSE
14) Policy problems that Congress cannot resolve are likely to be easily resolved by bureaucrats.FALSE
15) Government agencies are always given the necessary resources and authority to implement apolicy by Congress.FALSE
16) Street bureaucrats are those civil service employees who have the highest GS ratings.FALSE
17) Most bureaucrats are guided by standard operating procedures (SOPs) to help them makenumerous everyday decisions based on a consistent, set routine.TRUE
18) A strong argument for deregulation is that the number and complexity of regulatory policieshave made regulation too complex and burdensome.TRUE
19) One of the staunchest supporters of deregulation was President Ronald Reagan.TRUE
20) Since Congress holds the power of the purse, the president has no authority over an agency’sbudget.FALSE
21) The Supreme Court, Congress, and the federal bureaucracy headed by the president constitutewhat is often called the “iron triangle.”FALSE
1) The classic conception of ________ was advanced by the German sociologist Max Weber, whostressed that it was a “rational” way for modern society to conduct its business: awell-organized machine with plenty of working, but hierarchical, parts.bureaucracy
2) What are the main elements of the Weberian model of bureaucracies?a hierarchical authority structure, task specialization, extensive rules, merit principleand impersonality
3) Only the ________ has more civilian employees in the federal bureaucracy than does theUnited States Postal Service.Department of Defense
4) Define the term patronage and give an example of how it was used.a hiring and promotion system based on political reasons rather than on merit orcompetence; answers will vary
5) After President James Garfield’s assassination in 1881, the new president pushed Congressinto passing the Pendleton ________ Act.Civil Service
6) What is the function of the Office of Personnel Management?in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government
7) As a new administration prepares to take control of the government, Congress publishes the________, which lists top federal jobs available for direct presidential appointment.plum book
8) The Securities and Exchange Commission and the Federal Reserve Board are both examples of________, each governed by a small commission, usually with five to ten members appointedby the president for fixed terms and confirmed by the Senate.independent regulatory agencies
9) What are independent executive agencies? Give an example.government agencies that are not regulatory agencies or government corporations yetwhose administrators are appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; GeneralServices Administration, National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration
10) To help bureaucrats make everyday decisions in a routine manner, they are required to followset rules known as ________, which some criticize as “red tape.”standard operating procedures
11) Why are standard operating procedures important to an agency?Answers will vary.
12) What is meant by administrative discretion, and when is it most often used?the authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a givenproblem; greatest when standard operating procedures do not fit for a case
13) ________ bureaucrats are those who are in constant contact with the public (often a hostileone) and have considerable discretion; they include police officers, welfare workers, and lowercourt judges.Street-level
14) The first federal regulatory agency was the ________, set up in 1887 to regulate the railroads,their prices, and their services to farmers.Interstate Commerce Commission
15) What is the significance of the Supreme Court case of Munn v. Illinois (1877)?Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the right of government to regulate thebusiness operations of a firm
16) List the three elements contained in all regulation.A grant of power from Congress, guidelines issued by a regulatory agency, and a meansof enforcement.
17) The idea behind ________ is that the number and complexity of regulatory policies have maderegulation too complex and burdensome, and that regulation raises prices, distorts marketforces, and does not do what it sets out to do.deregulation
18) What is an executive order and why are they issued?regulations originating from the executive branch; used by presidents to control thebureaucracy
19) An “iron triangle” consists of a(n) ________, a Congressional committee or subcommittee, anda bureaucratic agency.interest group
20) What are issue networks? Explain their significance.consist of individuals with technical policy expertise and those who are drawn to anissue out of intellectual or emotional commitments rather than material interests; theseindividuals work aside subgovernments, complicating their calculations and decreasingthe predictability of those involved in subgovernments