The Most Complicated Spinal Reflexes Are Called

A & P Chapter 13

The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.central
Anesthetics administered into the epidural space are advantageous because __________.the effect is localized and only sensory
Tom is a football player who gets hit hard from behind along his spine. About a week later, he is diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, an infection of the CSF carried through the bloodstream. Given that the infection was associated with blood, which hypothesis is most likely to have occurred?The pia matter tore away from the spinal cord, damaging the associated blood vessels, which leaked into the subarachnoid space
The dorsal root ganglia consist mainly of __________.cell bodies of unipolar neurons
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is confined between the __________ and the __________.pia mater; arachnoid mater
Spinal nerves areboth sensory and motor.
The dorsal root ganglia mainly containcell bodies of sensory neurons.
The spinal cord consists of four regions and ________ segments.thirty-one
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve containsaxons of sensory neurons.
The ventral root of a spinal nerve containsaxons of motor neurons.
The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is thedura mater.
If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,sensory input would be blocked.
The subdural space lies betweenthe dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is thepia mater
A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form aspinal nerve.
In meningitis,inflammation of the meninges occurs.
viruses can be the cause.
CSF flow can be disrupted.
bacteria can be the cause.
All of the answers are correct.
In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at aboutL1
Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?Loss of sensation in his torso
The condition in which a person loses all feeling and movement of the arms and legs due to spinal cord injury is termedquadriplegia.
The dorsal root contains ________ neurons.sensory
During the procedure known as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region.lumbar puncture
The major anatomical difference between gray matter and white matter is __________.the presence of myelinated axons
The __________ gray horns contain sensory nuclei.posterior
The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainlysensory nuclei
Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up thewhite columns.
The white matter of the spinal cord containsbundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
As they were examining Joe in the ER, Joe was poked with a pin in a sequential pattern from his chest down to his abdomen. Joe could feel the pinpricks until just inferior to his navel, but then nothing below that. What root into the spinal cord is this sensory information traveling through?through the ventral ramus into the dorsal root ganglion
Which nerve plexus is most likely impacted by Joe’s injury?lumbar
Both poliomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome can involve paralysis where control over skeletal muscle function is lost. What is the neurotransmitter that a motor neuron uses to communicate with a skeletal muscle?acetylcholine
Which of the following nerves do not innervate the ankle and the foot?fibular nerve
a branch of the sciatic nerve
sural nerve
All of these nerves innervate the ankle and the foot.
Which of the following nerves is not part of the sensory innervation in the hand?musculocutaneous nerve
Shingles that manifest themselves in close proximity to the umbilical region stem from an infection within spinal nerves emerging from which spinal segments?thoracic
The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.dorsal ramus
Neuronal pools are described as __________.functional groups of interconnected neurons
While building a doghouse, Tom misses the nail and hits his thumb with the hammer instead. The pain sensation is immediate and intense. Which of the following is the pattern of neuronal pool interaction most likely to process that sensation?serial processing
You are sitting at a Mexican restaurant waiting for your food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, telling you to be careful about touching it. You touch it anyway, producing a pain sensation in your fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment of what you are thinking. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.parallel
Interneurons are organized into functional groups calledneuronal pools.
Which of these is NOT one of the essential components of a monosynaptic reflex?integration processing in the CNS
A reflex arc always includes a(n) __________.sensory receptor
afferent axon
efferent axon
All of the listed responses are correct.
All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that theycannot be modified by the brain.
Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.innate
Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following exceptwhether they are sensory or motor.
The neural “wiring” of a single reflex is called a(n)reflex arc.
________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles.Somatic
The most complicated spinal reflexes are calledintersegmental reflex arcs
You have a pair of new sneakers. As you walk along the corridor, your foot catches. Immediately, your body responds and you are able to catch yourself before falling. Which reflex was executed?crossed extensor reflex
The polysynaptic reflex that limits muscle tension is the __________ reflex.tendon
The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.crossed extensor
The flexor reflexmoves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are calledcontralateral.
Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are calledipsilateral.
Which of the following is an example of the brain modifying reflex patterns?when someone holds their breath
when a person deliberately walks on hot coals
when someone keeps postponing emptying a full urinary bladder
All of the listed responses are correct.
Clenching the fists often enhances the knee jerk reflex. This is an example of __________.reinforcement
Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?why you close your eyes when you sneeze
What type of information is communicated through the ventral root of the spinal cord?Somatic motor
Visceral motor
Sensory information entering the dorsal ramus of the spinal nerve is most likely coming from which part of the body?Exteroreceptors on back
Damage to which branch of the spinal nerve is likely only to have an effect on the muscles of the limbs?The ventral ramus