Using The Asch Procedure, Conformity To Group Judgments Would Be Least Likely When

Chapter 14 Quizes

Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to indicate a controlling personality rather than a necessity because of the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates the ________ error.fundamental attribution
Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of role-playing on ________.attitude change
Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when participants are not ________.observed by other group members when giving their answers
Research participants were told that Milgram’s obedience experiments were designed to study ________.learning
Bonnie pedals a stationary bike at her health club much faster when other exercisers happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates facilitation
When pressured to conform, people may do the opposite of what is expected as a way of increasing their sense of ________.personal control
When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates polarization
Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate ________.ingroup bias
When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of the ________ phenomenon.just-world
Studies have revealed diminished activity in the ________ of violent criminals.frontal lobes
After being heavily exposed to X-rated films, men are later ________ likely to perceive extramarital sex as troubling and _______ likely to perceive a woman’s friendliness as sexual interest.less; more
When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of the ________ effect.mere exposure
Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can arouse passionate love?the two-factor theory
Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer who was 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the area would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the decision-making process involved in ________.the bystander effect
The hostilities between two racial groups in a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of ________.superordinate goals
The fundamental attribution error involves the tendency to ________ on another person’s behavior.underestimate situational influences
Bart’s friends convinced him to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he did not resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the ________.foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he later began to develop a more favorable attitude about the student’s abilities?cognitive dissonance theory
Research participants who worked beside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated the ________ effect.chameleon
Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of ________.visual perception
Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.easy
In a study of social loafing, students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought others were pulling with them
Frieda is typically very quiet and shy. As part of a huge rock concert crowd, she loses her inhibitions and becomes a screaming, dancing fan. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of ________.deindividuation
Groupthink is fueled by a desire for ________.harmony
Prejudice is a(n) ________ and discrimination is a(n) ________.attitude; behavior
Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for the ________ theory.scapegoat
Alex has just learned that he did not make his school’s football team. As a response, he tears apart the team uniforms and breaks several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of the ________ principle.frustration-aggression
People’s physical attractiveness is a good predictor of their frequency of
Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of ________.equity
Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country’s actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates ________ perceptions.mirror-image
Which of the following is true of zero-sum situations?They discourage trust and cooperation.
In a non-zero-sum game involving two players, both can ________ or ________, or ________ can happenwin, lose; one can win and one can lose
When first meeting someone new, people usuallyrely on ________.first impressions
Solomon Asch discovered that when people look at lists of traits or hear about someone’s traits, they are influenced primarily by ________ traits.central
If you see someone weaving through traffic at great speed, you might say he is a terrible driver and hope he gets stopped. What you don’t know is that the driver is a husband rushing his wife to the hospital because she is about to deliver their baby. What you have just committed is the ________ error.fundamental attribution
Hamilton and Giffords’ experiment showed how people are susceptible to making ________.illusory correlations
People rely on ________ because they have limited memory capacity and often have incomplete or flawed information about other people.stereotypes
Sherif’s autokinetic phenomenon study demonstrated how people were likely to change their answers when the situation was ambiguous. This phenomenon is called ________ influence.informational social
Asch found that ________ percent of the real participants in his conformity experiment agreed with the wrong answer on at least one of the critical trials.74
The real participants in Asch’s conformity studies conformed ________ when they could privately write their answers on a piece of paper.less
Social psychologists have found that conformity increases when a group is ________.unanimous
Sometimes people resist social influence by rebelling against social pressure. In psychology, this is called ________.reactance