Chapter 13 Psychological Therapies
|Which of the following treatments reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning?|
|D. Biological Therapies|
|Which of the following statements about biological therapies is FALSE?|
A. Biological therapies are treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning.
|C. Psychologists can prescribe drugs for psychological disorders in most states.|
|Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy:|
A. is mixed, in that psychotherapy works well for women but not for men.
|B. clearly shows that psychotherapy works.|
|The therapeutic alliance is the relationship between the therapist and:|
A. the client
|A. the client|
|Clients of therapists who do not monitor the quality of the therapeutic alliance are:|
A. more likely to drop out of therapy
|A. more likely to drop out of therapy|
|Research shows that _______________________ is the most important determinant of therapy outcome.|
A. the therapist’s credentials
|C. the quality of the client’s participation|
|Which of the following therapies stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early, childhood experiences in the development of an individual’s problems?|
A. Psychodynamic therapies
|A. Psychodynamic therapies|
|The main goal of psychoanalysis is to:|
A. persuade clients to abandon their irrational, miser-inducing beliefs.
|B. help individuals gain insight into the unconscious conflicts that are the source of their problems.|
|Which of the following is true of psychoanalytic techniques?|
A. Freud believed that transference was an avoidable aspect of the analyst-patient relationship.
|D. Freud believed that a person’s current problems could be traced to childhood experiences|
|Sean, a psychologist, told his colleague “My client must confront the conflicts he faced in his childhood and gain release from this burdening anxiety.” According to this statement, it can be concluded that Sean follows a _______ approach.|
|Which of the following is the most important determinant of the effectiveness of psychotherapy?|
A. the duration of therapy sessions
|B. The therapeutic alliance|
|Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. The types of techniques that she is likely to use would include:|
A. free association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client’s resistance to discussing painful memories.
|A. free association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client’s resistance to discussing painful memories.|
|Charlotte is a psychologist who believes in the following statement, “Abnormal behavior is the result of unresolved unconscious conflicts.” Since she believes in this statement, it can be inferred that Charlotte practices _____ therapy.|
|Your psychotherapist asks you to “free associate.” What are you being asked to do?|
A. You are being asked to concentrate on relaxing as your therapist presents you with anxiety-provoking stimuli.
|C. You are being asked to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.|
|According to Freud’s psychodynamic perspective, what is the best way to gain insight into a person’s core problems?|
A. reinforcing the client for ignoring neurotic thoughts
|B. bringing unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness|
|The release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience is known as|
A. tardive dyskinesia.
|According to Freud’s therapeutic technique, getting people to talk freely|
A. exhausts them.
|C. allows their deepest thoughts to emerge.|
|According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, interpretation|
A. is the psychoanalytic term for the client’s relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client’s life.
|D. is a psychoanalyst’s search for symbolic, hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy.|
|Which of the following statements is true regarding the psychoanalytic technique of dream analysis?|
A. In dream analysis, every dream, including nightmares, contains a hidden, disguised unconscious wish.
|A. In dream analysis, every dream, including nightmares, contains a hidden, disguised unconscious wish.|
|According to Freudian dream analysis, the unconscious, hidden aspects that are symbolized by the manifest content of dreams refers to the _____ content.|
|James dreamed that he went to his neighbor’s house at midnight and made himself a sandwich. His psychoanalyst interpreted the dream to mean that James really wanted to have sex with his neighbor’s wife. Making the sandwich was the|
A. hidden content of the dream.
|B. manifest content of the dream.|
|In psychoanalytic theory, the term transference is used to describe|
A. the gradual shifting of erogenous desires from the mouth to the genitals.
|B. the client’s relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client’s life.|
|Sherice started seeing a psychotherapist because of marital problems. She is unhappy because she feels her husband does not give her enough attention. After several sessions, she is quite taken with her male therapist because he gives her undivided attention. This growing affection for the therapist is called|
|In the context of psychoanalysis, when a psychotherapist questions a client about the nightmares the client has had, the therapist is engaging in the method of|
|C. dream analysis.|
|In the context of psychoanalysis, a client interacting with an analyst as if the analyst were a parent or lover exemplifies the concept of|
|Which of the following scenarios indicates the psychoanalytic phenomenon of transference?|
A. Harry visits his psychotherapist twice a week.
|B. Derek feels attached to his psychotherapist who resembles his girlfriend.|
|Bruce is seeing a therapist for his depression but he is always late and has missed several appointments. He talks about sports and the weather to try and avoid facing his problems and he often becomes argumentative with his therapist. According to psychoanalytic theory, Bruce’s behavior is a classic example of|
|Dr. Patterson tries to create a warm supportive atmosphere to help her clients improve their self-concepts and to encourage insight into problems. Dr. Patterson says little to her depressed client. Instead, she waits for him to express his feelings and for him to decide what he wants to do about his problems. This emphasis on encouraging self-reflection indicates that Dr. Patterson is practicing|
A. client-centered therapy.
|A. client-centered therapy.|
|Which of the following is a primary goal of humanistic therapists?|
A. to change maladaptive behaviors
|B. to encourage personal growth|
|Humanistic therapies differ from psychodynamic therapies in that humanistic therapies emphasize|
A. change of behavior rather than underlying thoughts.
|D. self-fulfillment rather than illness.|
|In the context of types of therapy, client-centered therapy follows a _____ approach.|
|Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary’s therapist tends to be very nondirective and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary’s therapist is most likely associated with the _____ perspective of psychotherapy.|
|Dr. Laura engages in reflective listening with Bill who suffers from depression. She waits for him to express his feelings and decide what he wants to do about his problems. According to this information, it can be inferred that Dr. Laura is practicing _____ therapy.|
|The therapeutic environment of client-centered therapy is likely to be characterized by|
A. arousal and challenge.
|C. warmth and support.|
|Which of the following individuals is engaging in reflective speech?|
A. Mary, who comforts Joel since he is extremely anxious about his results
|B. Alan, who agrees with Gus that he is facing obstacles at work since he is frustrated with his boss|
|The primary premise of humanistic therapy is that|
A. individuals possess the capacity to heal themselves.
|A. individuals possess the capacity to heal themselves.|
|“I have never been a good problem solver. I am not direct enough to be successful,” the client complained. “You do not see yourself as a direct problem solver?” responded the therapist. This conversation is an example of _____ and is typical of _____.|
A. free association/client-centered therapy
|D. reflective speech/client-centered therapy|
|_____ are called insight therapies because they encourage self-awareness as the path to psychological health.|
A. Cognitive and sociocultural therapies
|C. Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies|
|The primary goal of behavior therapy is to|
A. uncover unconscious conflicts.
|C. reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior.|
|Which of the following statements is true of behavior therapies?|
A. They encourage self-awareness as the key to psychological health.
|D. They strive to eliminate individuals’ depressed symptoms or behaviors.|
|Which of the following techniques should be most likely implemented by a behavioral therapist when a client has a fear of public speaking?|
A. dream analysis
|B. systematic desensitization|
|Jane is afraid of crowds. If her therapist uses systematic desensitization technique, Jane will be asked to|
A. identify self-defeating thoughts.
|D. learn how to relax.|
|Systematic desensitization involves|
A. exposing someone to a feared situation in a real or an imagined way.
|A. exposing someone to a feared situation in a real or an imagined way.|
|Which of the following is a part of the process of systematic desensitization?|
|C. deep relaxation|
|Frank is seeing a therapist for his spider phobia. The therapist first teaches him muscle relaxation and then they develop a stimulus hierarchy. Frank is seeing a therapist who uses|
|B. systematic desensitization.|
|All of the following are considered a form of behavior therapy EXCEPT|
A. operant conditioning.
|D. client-centered therapy.|
|Aversive conditioning can be an effective treatment for|
A. schizophrenia and panic disorder.
|C. smoking, overeating, and drinking alcohol.|
|As part of a smoking-cessation program, Paul receives an injection of a nausea-inducing drug and then is asked to smoke a cigarette. Even though he knows he is receiving the drug, it is hoped that Paul will associate the nausea symptoms with smoking and will thus smoke less. This example best demonstrates the procedures typically used in|
A. aversive conditioning.
|A. aversive conditioning.|
|Which of the following individuals would benefit from systematic desensitization?|
A. a person who is addicted to alcohol
|C. a person who has a phobia of closed spaces|
|If a therapist gives an alcoholic a drink laced with a nausea-inducing drug so that she or he will become ill after drinking the alcohol, the therapist is using|
A. systematic desensitization.
|B. aversive conditioning.|
|Which of the following therapies represents the application of operant principles to psychological disorders?|
A. systematic desensitization
|C. applied behavior analysis|
|_____ therapies emphasize that thoughts are the main source of psychological problems, and they attempt to influence and change the feelings and behaviors by changing the thoughts.|
|A therapist who uses cognitive restructuring believes that _____ are the causes of abnormal behavior.|
A. parental relationships
|B. maladaptive thoughts|
|Judy thinks she is depressed over her teacher’s criticism of her paper. Judy’s therapist explains to her that Judy’s own illogical belief—that the criticism means she is stupid—is really why she is depressed. Judy is likely to be seeing a therapist who is providing _____therapy.|
|B. Beck’s cognitive|
|Beck’s cognitive therapy focuses on|
A. illogical thoughts.
|A. illogical thoughts.|
|Luanne is being treated for depression after a breakup with her boyfriend. Her therapist points out that her thoughts, and not the situation itself, cause her depression. Luanne’s therapist seems to practice _____ therapy.|
|D. Beck’s cognitive|
|Decatastrophize technique in cognitive therapy involves|
A. helping the client evaluate whether he is overestimating the nature of a situation.
|A. helping the client evaluate whether he is overestimating the nature of a situation.|
|Adrian is a cognitive therapist. He intends to help his client Troy, who feels that he is a born loser and will continue to be a loser in the future. According to this information, which of the following cognitive therapy techniques should be implemented by Adrian?|
A. questioning the evidence
|C. examining advantages and disadvantages|
|A psychologist who practices cognitive therapy might try to help a patient who suffers from a major depressive disorder by|
A. using systematic desensitization to replace depression with relaxation.
|B. trying to get the patient to identify irrational and self-defeating thoughts.|
|Which of the following is a cognitive therapy technique whereby clients rate their emotions in order to gain a perspective of their situation?|
|_____ is a technique in cognitive therapy.|
|Cindy’s therapist uses the technique of distraction to help her deal with anxiety and asks her to count to 200 by 13s when she feels herself becoming anxious. From this scenario, it can be inferred that Cindy’s therapist practices|
A. psychodynamic therapy.
|D. cognitive therapy.|
|Which of the following is an important aspect of cognitive-behavior therapy?|
|Which of the following indicates the view of a humanistic therapist regarding the cause of psychological problems?|
A. They occur as a result of transference between the therapist and the client.
|B. They occur as a result of client’s functioning below the optimal level.|
|Tasha is seeing a therapist because she is depressed. Her therapist gives her examples of reinforcing self-statements and trains Tasha on self-instructional methods that allow her to modify her own behavior. Tasha’s therapist is most likely practicing|
A. psychodynamic therapy.
|C. cognitive-behavior therapy.|
|Carlos intends to help one of his clients who feels that he is a failure and is not capable of achieving anything in life. Which of the following cognitive therapies should be implemented by Carlos in this situation?|
A. contingency approach
|C. self-instructional technique|
|Dr. Guerrero uses different therapies based on the benefits they provide for her clients. Currently she is using a behavioral approach to treat an individual with panic disorder and a cognitive therapy approach to treat a client with major depressive disorder. Dr. Guerrero is practicing|
|D. integrative therapy.|
|Integrative therapy is most compatible with the _____ model of abnormal behavior.|
|Which of the following biomedical interventions for eliminating the symptoms of psychological disorders is used least often?|
A. aversive conditioning
|Tranquilizers are _____ drugs.|
|Xanax, Valium, and Librium are benzodiazepines that are commonly used drug therapies for treating|
A. mood disorders.
|B. anxiety disorders.|
|Which of the following classes of drugs are NOT considered antidepressants?|
|_____ treat depression by increasing the level of norepinephrine and serotonin.|
|Derek is suffering from anxiety disorder and is currently under medication. According to this scenario, which of the following side effects will be experienced by Derek as a result of taking his medication?|
A. tardive dyskinesia
|Avril is suffering from major depressive disorder and has been administered the drug Elavil, a tricyclic drug. According to this information, which of the following side effects is she likely to experience as a result of the intake of this drug?|
|C. memory difficulties|
|Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are what type of antidepressant drugs?|
|C. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)|
|_____ inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine and is also known as serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.|
|Elizabeth visited a psychiatrist who, after interviewing her, recommended either Paxil or Prozac. From this scenario, it can be inferred that Elizabeth is most likely suffering from|
|In addition to providing treatment for depression, antidepressant drugs may also be an effective treatment for|
|B. anxiety disorders and eating disorders.|
|In the context of drug therapy, the widespread increase in the number of individuals taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to combat their depression is primarily due to the|
A. lesser side effects as compared to other antidepressants.
|A. lesser side effects as compared to other antidepressants.|
|Lithium is commonly used to treat|
A. panic attacks.
|B. bipolar disorder.|
|By influencing norepinephrine and serotonin, lithium is thought to|
A. cure insomnia.
|D. stabilize moods.|
|Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat|
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
|Neuroleptic drugs _____.|
A. are antianxiety drugs
|B. reduce schizophrenic symptoms|
|Which of the following is true of neuroleptic drugs?|
A. Neuroleptic drugs treat the causes of schizophrenia, not its symptoms.
|D. If an individual with schizophrenia stops taking neuroleptic drugs, the symptoms return.|
|Clozapine is used to treat|
A. Alzheimer’s disease.
|Which of the following is a class of antipsychotic drugs that is administered as a part of drug therapy?|
|Chaz has been on antipsychotic medication for several weeks now. As a consequence, he is most likely to experience the side effect of|
|C. involuntary muscle movement.|
|The potential side effect of neuroleptic drugs is _____, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs.|
|C. tardive dyskinesia|
|The goal of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is|
A. to help people eliminate illogical thinking.
|D. to set off a seizure in the brain.|
|The side effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitors prescribed for agoraphobia is|
|Which of the following class of drugs is used to treat agoraphobia?|
A. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
|D. tricyclic drugs|
|Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used for|
A. dissociative identity disorder.
|B. severe depression.|
|Ivan is very depressed, and the danger of suicide is eminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally employed to treat depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in reducing Ivan’s depression and suicidal behavior?|
A. a self-help group
|B. electroconvulsive therapy|
|Gabriella has been diagnosed with depression and is currently under medication. Her doctor has prescribed her selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. According to this information, which of the following side effects will be experienced by Gabriella as a result of taking this medication?|
|According to biological forms of therapy, when an individual is suffering from a severe episode of major depressive disorder, which of the following treatment approaches will be useful in reducing his symptoms in the short-run and provide rapid relief to the person’s mood?|
|B. electroconvulsive therapy|
|Who among the following is most suitable for electroconvulsive therapy?|
A. Alan, who has obsessive-compulsive disorder
|C. Brad, who is contemplating suicide|
|Which of the following is a biological intervention that involves the removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve an individual’s adjustment?|
A. electroconvulsive therapy
|Which of the following statements about psychosurgery is FALSE?|
A. Psychosurgery is a biological therapy that involves the removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve an individual’s adjustment.
|C. The effects of psychosurgery can be reversed with intensive therapy.|
|Which of the following forms of treatment would be used only as a last resort to help patients with severely debilitating conditions?|
A. drug therapy
|Which of the following features of group therapy helps individuals who share a psychological disorder observe that others feel anguish and suffering as well?|
|Which of the following is a characteristic of group therapy?|
|A major advantage to group therapy is that|
A. clients have more opportunity to develop social skills.
|A. clients have more opportunity to develop social skills.|
|Dr. Susan is your family therapist. She believes that to adequately understand psychological problems, she must understand the role that you play in the family system. Which of these statements supports that underlying belief?|
A. Older siblings are usually relied upon to provide therapeutic solutions.
|C. The psychological symptoms of a person are a function of the family relationship.|
|Among the techniques used in family therapy, validation involves|
A. the therapist finding something positive to say to each family member.
|A. the therapist finding something positive to say to each family member.|
|Taylor is a family therapist who intends to resolve a mother-child coalition that has formed in the case of her client Hannah, since Hannah’s husband does not spend quality time with them. According to this information, it can be inferred that Taylor is likely to implement the _____ technique.|
A. guided association
|C. structural change|
|Elizabeth, a family therapist, tells Roy’s family that his problem of cocaine addiction is related to the dynamics that exists within their family. According to this information, it can be inferred that Elizabeth practices the _____ technique.|
|Which of the following is a technique that is used in family therapy?|
|C. structural change|
|In the context of family therapy, getting the family to acknowledge that the problem is a family problem and not just the problem of one individual is known as|
|Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques most commonly used in|
|C. family therapy.|
|One aspect of family therapy is the idea that a family member’s symptoms are a function of the family relationships. If, for example, a teenage son is the scapegoat of the parents, which family-therapy technique would be the most appropriate to use?|
|Which of the following is a goal of couples therapy?|
A. to improve the communication between the partners
|A. to improve the communication between the partners|
|Which of the following forms of treatment relies on paraprofessionals?|
A. family therapy
|C. self-help support groups|
|Which of the following is true of self-help support groups?|
A. Self-help support groups are conducted by a professional therapist.
|D. Self-help support groups provide members with a sympathetic audience for social sharing and emotional release.|
|John, an alcoholic, does not have much money, but requires the help of a mental-health professional. He might best be served by contacting a|
A. board-certified psychiatrist.
|B. self-help support group.|
|Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is based on which of the following therapeutic approaches?|
A. family therapy
|B. self-help group|
|Community mental health programs seek to help people who are disenfranchised from society to lead happier, more productive lives through the concept of|
A. unconditional positive regard.
|In the context of community mental-health movement, deinstitutionalization involves|
A. releasing individuals with mental disorders from prison.
|C. transferring individuals with psychological disorders from mental institutions to community-based facilities.|
|Given that collectivist cultures place more importance on the group than on the individual, some psychologists have suggested that _____ is likely to be more effective with people from Asian and Latino cultures.|
|C. family therapy|
|Researchers have found that when there is an ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnic-specific services are provided,|
A. clients are more likely to drop out of therapy early.
B. clients have better treatment outcomes.
C. treatment outcomes are the same as when there is no ethnic match.
|B. clients have better treatment outcomes.|