One Of The Nails In The Coffin For Earth-Centered Universe Was

Astronomy Chapter 3

The ancient Greeks get a lot of attention for their contributions to science because ________.they were the first people known to try to explain nature with models based on reason and mathematics, without resort to the supernatural
Galileo’s observations of a complete set of phases of Venus provedthat Venus orbited the sun
Why did Galileo’s observations of moons orbiting Jupiter disagree with geocentric model of the universe of his time?The moons did not appear to orbit Earth
Tycho failed to detect ______ for the nova of 1572 indicating it was ______.parallax; beyond the orbit of Earth’s moon.
The Copernican system was no more accurate than the Ptolemaic system in predicting the positions of the planets because ___________just as in the Ptolemaic system.the Copernican system used uniform circular motion
In Ptolemy’s view of the universe, a planet moves on an epicycle whose center moves around the Earth on the deferent circle.correct
The greatest inaccuracy in Copernicus’s model of the solar system was that the planetstraveled in circular orbits with uniform motion.
One of the “nails in the coffin” for the Earth-centered universe wasGalileo’s observations of the moons of Jupiter
The phases of Venus observed by Galileo support the model of the universe presented byCopernicus
Which of the following was not observed by Galileo?stellar parallax
Galileo used a telescope to discover all of following exceptrotational motion of the Earth
When Copernicus first created his Sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the Ptolemaic model. Why not?Copernicus used perfect circles for the orbits of the planets
Scientific models are used to ________.make specific predictions that can be tested through observations or experiments
Match the accomplishment to the person:Tycho collected data, Kepler found elliptical orbits, Newton explained in terms of physics.
When observing planetary motions from Earth, the phrase “direct motion” refers toA slow eastward motion of the planet from night to night against the background stars.
Nicolaus Copernicus was the first person toDevelop a mathematical model for a Sun-centered solar system
The ancient goal of astrology was topredict human events
Retrograde motion (east to west among the stars) is observedfor some planets as Earth passes between that planet and the sun
Kepler used Tycho’s observations to show that the planetsfollowed elliptical orbits
Why did Ptolemy have the planets orbiting Earth on “circles upon circles” in his model of the universe?to explain the fact that planets sometimes appear to move westward, rather than eastward, relative to the stars in our sky
Which of the following is NOT a fundamental difference between the geocentric and Sun-centered models of the solar system?The geocentric model is useless for predicting planetary positions in the sky, whereas even the earliest Sun-centered models worked almost perfectly.
A(n) ____ is well supported (observational and/or experimental) system of rules and principles that can be applied to a wide variety of circumstancestheory
A(n) ____ is a small circle whose center is located on the circumference of another larger circle.epicycle
What was the Ptolemaic model?An Earth-centered model of planetary motion published by Ptolemy
The purpose of using epicycles and deferents to explain the motion of the planets in the night sky was to account forretrograde motion
The great contribution of Tycho Brahe was to ________.observe planetary positions with sufficient accuracy so that Kepler could later use the data to discover the laws of planetary motion
What phases of Venus were observed by Galileo?New, Crescent, Quarter, Gibbous, and Full phases.
In pre-Copernican astronomy, it was almost universally believed thatEarth was at the center of the universe
Tycho Brahe’s greatest contribution to astronomy washis 20 years of careful observations of the planets
Galileo challenged the idea that objects in the heavens were perfect by ___observing sunspots on the Sun and mountains on the Moon
Which of the following statements expresses what we mean by a scientific theory?A simple model that explains a wide variety of phenomena and that has survived repeated tests
Galileo’s telescopic discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was important because it showed thatthe universe could contain centers of motion other than Earth
Which of the following people did NOT accept a heliocentric model for the universe?Tycho
Ptolemy’s model of the universecontained epicycles
Parallax isthe apparent motion of an object due to the motion of the observer.
What practical value did astronomy offer to ancient civilizations?It helped them keep track of time and seasons, and it was used by some cultures for navigation.
An apparent westward motion of a planet in the sky compared to the background stars (as viewed from Earth) when observed on successive nights is referred to asretrograde motion
Galileo’s telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moonwere not perfect spheres
How did the Ptolemaic model explain the apparent retrograde motion of the planets?The planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles around the Earth.
The great contribution of Nicholas Copernicus was tocreate a detailed model of our solar system with the Sun rather than Earth at the center
In science, a broad idea that has been repeatedly verified so as to give scientists great confidence that it represents reality is called ________.theory
When observing planetary motions from Earth, the phrase “retrograde motion” refers toA slow westward motion of the planet from night to night against the background stars
The Kepler model of the solar system isSun-centered, with elliptical planetary orbits
What do we mean by a geocentric model of the universe?A model designed to explain what we see in the sky while having the Earth located in the center of the universe
Only one of the statements is correct. Which one?Scientific theories can never be proved true beyond all doubt
Which of the following statements about scientific theories is not true?A theory cannot be taken seriously by scientists if it contradicts other theories developed by scientists over the past several hundred years
Ptolemy was important in the history of astronomy because he ________.developed a model of the solar system that made sufficiently accurate predictions of planetary positions to remain in use for many centuries
Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun?phases of Venus
The path that led to modern science emerged from ancient civilizations in which part of the worldthe Mediterranean
Direct motion of a planet is its normal motion ____________ among the stars.west to east along the ecliptic

astronomy chapter 3

Which of the following claims can be tested by scientific means?People born when the Sun is in the constellation of Leo are more financially successful than other people.
The ancient Greeks get a lot of attention for their contributions to science because _________.they were the first people known to try to explain nature with models based on reason and mathematics, without resort to the supernatural
What was the Ptolemaic model?an Earth-centered model of planetary motion published by Ptolemy
What do we mean by a geocentric model of the universe?a model designed to explain what we see in the sky while having Earth located in the center of the universe
Which of the following was not a major advantage of Copernicus’s Sun-centered model over the Ptolemaic model?It made significantly better predictions of planetary positions in our sky.
One of the “nails in the coffin” for the Earth-centered universe wasGalileo’s observations of the moons of Jupiter.
Imagine for a moment that despite all the evidence, Earth actually is not rotating and orbiting the Sun. Which of these hypothetical observations (none of them are real) would be inconsistent with our Sun-centered view of the solar system?We discover a small planet beyond Saturn that rises in the west and sets in the east each day.
In science, a broad idea that has been repeatedly verified so as to give scientists great confidence that it represents reality is called _________.a theory
Which of the following is not true about a scientific theory?A theory is essentially an educated guess.
Only one of the statements below uses the term theory in its correct, scientific sense. Which one?Einstein’s theory of relativity has been tested and verified thousands of times.
Which of the following is not part of a good scientific theory?A scientific theory cannot be accepted until it has been proven true beyond all doubt.
All of the following statements are true. Which one can be explained by Kepler’s third law?Venus orbits the Sun at a faster orbital speed than Earth.
The great contribution of Tycho Brahe was to _________.observe planetary positions with sufficient accuracy so that Kepler could later use the data to discover the laws of planetary motion
The great contribution of Nicholas Copernicus was to _________.create a detailed model of our solar system with the Sun rather than Earth at the center
Earth is closer to the Sun in January than in July. Therefore, in accord with Kepler’s second law:Earth travels faster in its orbit around the Sun in January than in July.
According to Kepler’s third law:Jupiter orbits the Sun at a faster speed than Saturn.
Why did Tycho conclude that the Sun revolves around the Earth?He could not detect the parallax of stars expected if the Earth revolves around the Sun.
Galileo’s contribution to astronomy included:making observations and conducting experiments that dispelled scientific objections to the Sun-centered model.
Which of the following is the reason for the solar day being longer than a sidereal day?the combined effect of the rotation of Earth and its orbit about the Sun
According to Kepler’s third law (p2 = a3), how does a planet’s mass affect its orbit around the Sun?A planet’s mass has no effect on its orbit around the Sun.
The Earth is instantly replaced in its orbit by a speck of dust. Which statement best describes the subsequent orbital motion of that piece of dust?The dust particle will continue in the same orbit as the Earth did, orbiting the Sun in 1 year.
Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun?phases of Venus
The principle of Occam’s Razor states thatin explaining natural phenomena, the simplest explanation consistent with the observations is to be preferred.
Match the accomplishment to the person.Tycho collected data, Kepler found elliptical orbits, Newton explained in terms of physics.
How did Eratosthenes estimate the size of Earth in 240 B.C.?by comparing the maximum altitude of the Sun in two cities at different latitudes